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A Geographical Study on the Conservation and Rehabilitation of Mangrove Forests in Bogalay Township, Ayeyarwady Region

A Geographical Study on the Conservation and Rehabilitation of
Mangrove Forests in Bogalay Township, Ayeyarwady Region
CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF PLATES
ABSTRACT
Page
INTRODUCTION
Location of the Study Area
Research Problem
Hypotheses
Aim and Objectives
Research Data and Methods (should change bottom up)
Previous Investigations and Literature Reviews (should change bottom
up)
Research Design
Research Organization
Definitions
Acronyms
CHAPTER I GEOGRAPHICAL BASES OF THE STUDY AREA 1
1.1 Physical Factors 1
1.1.1 Location, Size, Shape, and Boundaries 1
1.1.2 Relief and Drainage 5
1.1.3 Geology 8
1.1.4 Climate 11
1.1.5 Soils 13
1.1.6 Tide, Salinity and Inundation 18
1.2 Human Factors 22
1.2.1 Historical Background 22
1.2.2 Demography 24
1.2.2.1 Population Growth 24
1.2.2.2 Population Distribution 26
1.2.2.3 Population Density 30
1.3 Institutional Factors 38
1.4 Social Factors 40
1.4.1 Education 40
1.4.2 Health Condition 44
1.4.3 Occupations 46
1.5 Cultural Factors 48
1.5.1 Ethnic Groups 48
1.5.2 Religion 49
1.6 Economic Factors 51
CHAPTER II CURRENT CONDITIONS OF MANGROVE
FORESTS AND THEIR UTILIZATION IN
BOGALAY TOWNSHIP 57
2.1 Classification of Land Cover and Land Use
(Post-Nargis) 57
2.2 Utilization of Mangrove Products 64
2.2.1 Utilization of Wood Products 66
2.2.2 Utilization of Non-Wood Products 67
CHAPTER III CHANGES OF MANGROVE FORESTS IN
BOGALAY TOWNSHIP 70
3.1 Change Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover 70
3.2 Causes of Change 81
3.2.1 Natural Factors 81
3.2.1.1 Sea Level Condition 81
3.2.1.2 Storm 81
3.2.1.3 Salinity Condition 86
3.2.2 Human Induced Factors 88
3.2.2.1 Conversion of Paddy Cultivation 88
3.2.2.2 Human Settlement 91
3.2.2.2.1Increase of Population in Mangrove Areas 91
3.2.2.3 Fisheries 94
3.2.2.4 Road Constructions 98
CHAPTER IV CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION
OF MANGROVE FORESTS 103
4.1 History of Mangrove Conservation and
Rehabilitation in Bogalay Township 103
4.2 Government Policy and Implementation 107
4.3 The Role of the Ministry of Environmental Conservation
and Forestry 109
4.4 The Role of NGOs’ Activities 115
4.5 The Role of Community Forestry 121
CHAPTER V FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND DISCUSSIONS 128
CONCLUSION 142
REFERENCES 145
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
Table 1.1 Monthly Rainfall and Temperature (1979-2008) 12
in Maubin Township
Table 1.2 Soil Legend of Bogalay Township (2010) 15
Table 1.3 Soil Classes of Bogalay Township (2010) 16
Table 1.4 Monthly Mean Salinity of the Study Area from 2000 to 2004 19
Table 1.5 Inundation Classes of Mangroves (Watson, 1928) 20
Table 1.6 Monthly Mean Tidal Amplitudes of the Study Area in 2004 21
Table 1.7 Common Species found in the Various Inundation
Classes of Mangroves 21
Table 1.8 Population Growth of Bogalay Township (1891, 1901, 1911,
1921, 1931, 1963,1973,1983,1993, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2009, 2010) 26
Table 1.9 Population Distributions by Wards and Village Tracts in
Bogalay Township (2009) 28
Table 1.10 Population Density of Bogalay Township in 2009 34
Table 1.11 Population Densities of Bogalay Town and Village Tracts (2010) 35
Table 1.12 The Population of Bogalay Township by Gender Ratio (2009) 38
Table 1.13 Percentages of Ethnic Groups in Bogalay Township (2011) 48
Table 1.14 Religions of Study Area in 2010 51
Table 2.1 Changes of Mangrove Forest Area during the Period from
1924 to 2010 in Bogalay Township 58
Table 2.2 Total Area of each Land Use and Land Cover Types in 59
2010 (Post- Nargis)
Table 2.3 Paddy Cultivation of Bogalay Township (1972-73 to 2009-10) 63
Table 2.4 Direct Products from Mangrove Forests 65
Table 3.1 Total Area of each Land Use and Land Cover Types
in 1989, 2000 , 2010 74
Table 3.2 The Result of Change Detection Analysis Based on the
Comparison of Image Classification in 1989 and 2000 74
Table 3.3 The Result of Change Detection Analysis Based on
the Comparison of Image Classification in 2000 and 2010 76
Table 3.4 The Result of Change Detection Analysis Based on the
Comparison of Image Classification in 1989 and 2010 78
Table 3.5 Protection of Reserved Forest in Bogalay Township 92
Table 3.6 Townships Extract Salt in Ayeyarwady Delta (2002) 98
Table 4.1 Areas to be established as plantations or protected forests
during the Master Plan period for the Ayeyarwady Mangroves 116
Table 5.1 The Fifteen most mangroves rich countries and their
cumulative percentages (2010) 135
Table 5.2 Changes in Southeast Asian Mangroves Area
(1980, 1990 and 2000) 136
Table 5.3 Reserved Forests in Bogalay Township (2005) 138
Table 5.4 Reserved Forests in Ayeyarwady Delta (1924, 1954, 1974, 139
1983,1990,1995,2001 and 2007)
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
Figure 1.1 (a) The Union of Myanmar and Ayeyarwady Region 2
(b) Ayeyarwady Region and Bogalay Township 3
(c) Location of Bogalay Township 4
Figure 1.2 Relief and Drainage of Bogalay Township 7
Figure 1.3 Geology of Bogalay Township 10
Figure 1.4 Monthly Rainfalls and Temperature (1979-2008) in 12
Maubin Township
Figure 1.5 Soil Types of Bogalay Township 17
Figure 1.6 Monthly Mean Salinity of the Study Area from 2000 to 2004 19
Figure 1.7 Monthly Mean Tidal Amplitude of the Study Area in 2004 20
Figure 1.8 Population Distribution of Bogalay Township (2010) 29
Figure 1.9 Population Density of Bogalay Township (2010) 32
Figure 1.10 Village Tracts of Bogalay Township (2009) 33
Figure 2.1 Changes of Mangrove Forests Area during the Period from 58
1924 to 2010 in Bogalay Township
Figure 2.2 Types of Land Use and Land Cover in 2010 (Post-Nargis) 59
Figure 2.3 Land Cover Classifications in Bogalay Township ( 2010) 60
Figure 2.4 Paddy Cultivation of Bogalay Township 64
Figure 3.1 Flow Chart Showing the Major Steps of Land Use and 71
Land Cover Classification
Figure 3.2 Land Cover Classifications in Bogalay Township (1989) 72
Figure 3.3 Land Cover Classifications in Bogalay Township (2000) 72
Figure 3.4 Cyclone Nargis: Affected Areas and Cyclone Path 82
Figure 3.5 Mangrove and Flooded Area, Ayeyarwady Region 84
Figure 3.6 Cyclone Nargis: Most Affected Areas by percent of Population
and Area 86
Figure 3.7 Salinity Distribution of Ayeyarwady Delta 88
LIST OF PLATES
Plate Page
Plate 1.1 Paddy land at Hayman Village, Bogalay Township 39
Plate 1.2 (a) Multiple Uses Construction at Daminnaung Village,
Bogalay Township 41
(b) Multiple Uses Construction (now opening primary school) 42
at Daminnaung Village, Bogalay Township
(c) Storm Shelter at Shwe Pyi Aye Village, Bogalay Township 42
Plate 1.3 (a) Monastic School at Bogalay Town, Bogalay Township 43
(b) Bogalay Education College at Bogalay Town, Bogalay Township 43
Plate 1.4 (a) General Hospital of Bogalay 45
(b) Eye Clinic, Bogalay Town 45
(c) T.B and Malaria Clininc, Bogalay Town 45
Plate 1.5 (a, b, c, d, e , f) Assistance of NGOs (pigs, chicken, fish larva,
garden and model stoves) northern part of Pyindaye group 47
Plate 1.6 (a) Aung Setkyar Pagoda at Bogalay Myoma 50
(b) Hindu Temple
(c ,d) U Shingyi Nat and Hold a ceremony to propitiate nats
Plate 1.7 (a,b) Rice Mills at Bogalay Myoma, Bogalay Township 56
Plate 2.1 Firewood Trolley (Byu, Madama and other species 66
of Mangrove ), Bogalay Myoma
Plate 2.2 Charcoal Bags (Madama, Byu and other species), Bogalay Myoma 67
Plate 2.3 (a) Nipa palm (Nipa fruticans) 68
(b,d) A commercial market for nipa Shingles
(c) Handiwork and Sap
Plate 3.1 Post-Nargis of Bogalay Township 83
Plate 3.2 (a) Ploughed Fields for Summer Paddy (Pawsanmhwe)
at Tharpaung Village, Kadonkani Reserve Forest
Plate 3.2 (b) Summer Paddy Farming Group at Malot Villge, Bogalay Township 90
Plate 3.3(a) Intrusion of human settlement at Pyindaye Reserve Forest 93
(b) Garden Land at Padamyakone Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest
Plate 3.4 Fishery market at Setsan Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest 95
Plate 3.5 Fish pond at Setsan Village Tracts, Pyindaye Reserve Forest 96
Plate 3.6 Bogalay-Setsan-Htawpine-Ahmar Road Construction Project 101
Plate 3.7 (a) Bogalay-Kyeinchaung-Kadonkani Road 102
(b) Transportation Network of Ayeyarwady Delta 102
Plate 4.1 (a) Protection of Kadonkani Reserved Forest, 108
(b) Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary (Myauktayar Camp)
(c) Warning Signboard of Bogalay Town
Plate 4.2 Sheaf of Paddy Fields at Malawt Village, Kadonkani Reserve Forest 110
Plate 4.3 (a) Paddy Fields at Hayman Village, Paddy Field at Daminnaung 112
Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest
(b) Pyindaye Reserve Forest
(c) Sea Sesame, Daminnaung Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest
Plate 4.4(a) Myauktayar Aungtheikdi Pagoda and within Meinmahla Wildlife 114
Sanctuary
(b) Myauktayar Camp at Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary, Bogalay
Township
(c) Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary (Post-Nargis)
Plate 5.1 (a, b) Water, insufficient safe during summer to get to stand in line for 130
drinking water (Post-Nargis, every summer) (Hinterland of
Bogalay Myoma), at Ayeyarwady Delta
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstly, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my monk (Sayartaw
U Pawarabiwuntha, Nyaungtone Pali University, Bahan Township, Yangon), my
foster mother(aunty), Daw Tin Nyunt (TEO,retired), parents and to my family who
brought me up, educated, provided financial assistance and gave encouragement in
my long life. I am also very grateful to Professor Dr Nay Win Oo,Head of the
Geography Department,University of Yangon, for his support and encouragement.
I would also like to thank members of the PhD Steering Committee for their
guidance, suggestion and time since preliminary class.
I am greatly indebted to my supervisor Prof. Dr. Win Tint and co-supervisor
Dr. Nay Win Oo, Department of Geography, University of Yangon for their kind
discussion guidance, time and advices on this research work.
I want to thank Retired Rector U Hla Tun Aung, Mawlamyine University for
his invaluable advice and encouragement given to me in preparation of this
dissertation. My highest gratitude and sincerest thanks go to Prof. Maung Maung Aye,
Rector-in- Charge (Retired), University of Distance Education who highlighted me on
the environmental field.The researcher wishes to specially thank Daw Aye Aye
New,Referee,Professor and Head, Department of Geography, Hpa-an University and
Dr.Win Maung,external examiner, Pro-Rector ( Retired),Sittway University, for their
constructive suggestions and interest.
Thanks are extended to the officials of the Forest Department headquarters
and Bogalay Township staff and many others from different departments in the
Yangon Region and Bogalay township and villages especially, Daminnaung village,
Setsan village, Ahseigyi village, Hayman village, Tharpaung village, Malot village
and Byonemhwe Island for their assistance and Cyclone Nargis’s experience.
I would like to especially indebt the (NGOs) staff of FREDA, JICA, MERN,
MIMU, MSN, ECCDI, IOM, SDC and EcoDev.FREDA, NGOs also helped, awarded
scholarship and factual information concerned with the research. After all I am
grateful to my member Dr.Khin Khin Soe,(Lecturer),Department of Geography,
University of Yangon, for her valuable suggestions and time.
ABSTRACT
The study area is latitudinally located between 15°42´ North and 16° 28´
North and longitudinally between 95 °15´ East and 95° 35´ East. It is one of the 26
townships in Ayeyarwady Region, the Union of Myanmar. Ayeyarwady Region
especially Bogalay Township was once home of mangroves in Myanmar. Mangroves
in Myanmar have been destroyed for various purposes over the last several decades.
For decades mangrove forests have been declined, decimated to create
communities, for fish and shrimp farms and paddy fields and wood for charcoal.
Destruction of mangrove forests due to land use change more than 80 % of mangroves
in Bogalay Township were destroyed between 1924 and 1995. GIS techniques and
Remote Sensing (RS) with Arc GIS 9.3 and ENVI 4.7 software were used to analyze:
image classification (Standard Supervise Classification, Maximum likelihood
classifier and Change detection Analysis), the evaluation of the suitable mangrove
plantation sites is a very important activity for future mangrove reforestation. It gives
negative impacts not only to mangrove forests and their ecosystems but also to
adjoining coastal ecosystems as a whole (to correct grammar). It clearly indicates
alleviation of the poverty most urgent task to be carried out effectively by any
possible means. Most local inhabitants now realize the importance of the existence of
thick mangrove forests, but they have to cut the trees for their livelihood, as they can
barely earn from other sources. Consequently all living creatures will suffer serious
threats to their lives, if we do not conserve and restore mangrove ecosystems. In order
to undertake these activities, first we must conserve existing mangrove forests.
Second, we must utilize mangrove resources in a sustainable manner, and manage
them rationally. Third, we must rehabilitate mangrove, and restore damages or totally
destroyed mangrove forests and their resources.
CHAPTER I
GEOGRAPHICAL BASIC OF THE STUDY AREA
1.1 Physical Factors
Mangrove forests depend on geographical location, relief and drainage,
climate, soil and underlying rocks, etc.
1.1.1 Location, Size, Shape, and Boundaries
The study area is latitudinally located between 15°42´ North and 16° 28´
North and longitudinally between 95 °15´ East and 95° 35´ East. It is one of the 26
townships in Ayeyarwady Region, Union of Myanmar. Bogalay Township is in the
delta region; on the north by Kyaiklat Township, on the south by Bay of Bengal and
sub-township of Ahmar, on the east by Pyapon Township, on the west by
Mawlamyinekyun Township. This is almost flat region and most of forest area is tidal
forest covered by mangrove species.
The total area of Bogalay Township is 2,250.41sq.km (868.87 square miles)
representing 6.40 percent of the Ayeyarwady Region. From east to west 39.03 km
(24.25miles) and north to south is about 57.66 km (35.83 miles).Some of the land in
the study area where it meets the sea is the sand banks, islands, islets and peninsula
but some regions are muddy. These areas are shallow parts of the sea. The shape of
the study area resembles that of a triangular shape.
(Figure 1.1 a, b, c) 2
Figure 1.1(a) The Union of Myanmar and Ayeyarwady Region
Source: Myanmar Survey Department, Yangon
The Union of Myanmar Agriculture Atlas 3
Figure 1.1(b) Ayeyarwady Region and Bogalay Township
Source: Myanmar Survey Department, Yangon
The Union of Myanmar Agriculture Atlas 4
Figure 1.1(c) Location of Bogalay Township
Source: Myanmar Survey Department, Yangon
The Union of Myanmar Agriculture Atlas 5
1.1.2 Relief and Drainage
Bogalay Township is flat and has a delta of alluvial origin. Most areas are on the low
level receiving tidal inundation. The physical features of Bogalay Township are
basically higher in the north and gradually sloping southward to the sea and elevation
of the town is about 2.5 m (8.20feet) above sea level. Relief is below 15.24 m (50
feet) in Bogalay Township. The mangrove forests are found in the tidal region and on
sheltered muddy delta areas which is deposited and periodically inundated by the
tides. Bogalay Township consists of many rivers and creeks. All rivers are
distributaried by Ayeyarwady River and flows from north to south into the Bay of
Bengal and Gulf of Mottama.
The Ayeyarwady River flows from north to south forming the boundary between
Laputta and Bogalay townships. It is the largest river flowing for 96.56km (60 miles)
within Bogalay Township and useful for navigation. It is found in the western part of
Bogalay Township.
Bogalay River flows from north to south and flows into the Andaman Sea (Kapali). It
is formed by the confluence of Gonnyintan and Kyaikpi creeks. It is very useful for
navigation. The Bogalay River when reaching at Kyunnyogyi branches into two
channels, one forming Bogalay and the other, Kadonkani Creek. The two creeks
converge again at the end of Meinmahla Island and flows on as the Bogalay River and
it drains into the Andaman Sea (Kapali).
Thabetkyi Creek is a tributary of the Ayeyarwady River. It flows through the eastern
part of Kyunnyogyi islands, located at the mouth of Ayeyarwady River.
Gonnyindon Creek flows from north-east to south -west, serving as a boundary
between Kyaiklat and Bogalay townships. It joins the Kyaikpi Creek in the north-west
of Bogalay Township. 6
Kunpaline Creek flows from north to south, as boundary between Kyailat and Pyapon
with the Bogalay Township.
Kyaikpi Creek flows through northwest of Bogalay, and it is a boundary line between
Mawlamyinekyun Township and Bogalay Township. Then it flows into Gonnyindan
Creek.
Other Streams
There are many other streams flowing through Bogalay Township. Important streams
are Maye Chaung, Khulan Chaung, Thumataik Chaung, Upper Nat Chaung, Lower
Nat Chaung, Kaing Taw-We Chaung, Pyindeyekapyet Chaung, and Kumahauk
Chaung. Some of these streams are important waterways in the township.
Islands
Important islands of Bogalay Township are Kyunnyogyi, Meinmahla, Byonmhwe and
Sat islands.
Kyunnyogyi is formed in the Bogalay Creek and 9.66 km (6 miles) from south of
Bogalay Town. The area of Kyunnyogyi is over 8,093.8 ha (20,000 acres) and can be
used for cultivation. Kyunnyogyi Village Tract is located on this island.
Meinmahlakyun lies south of Kyunyogyi between Bogalay Creek and Kadonkani
creek. It is known as Meinmhlakyun Reserved Forest.
Byounemhwe is located west of Meinmahla Island . It is 4.82 km (3 miles) long and
is covered with mangrove forest.
SatKyun lies between Kyunnyogyi and Meinmahlakyun. It is a small island in
Bogalay Township.
1.1.3 Geology
Bogalay Township lies in the southern part of the delta basin. As the delta
basin is almost completely covered with alluvial except at some localities where Mio-
Pliocene beds cropped out, subsurface structure and basinal configuration are depicted
by geophysical surveys and test wells, drilled by MOGE (Myanmar Oil and Gas
Enterprise) in these areas. The basinal area consists of two buried structural high with
local deep sedimentary troughs NNE-SSW for distance of over 160.94 km (100
miles), may be seen remaining as basement high throughout sedimentation. A marked
thinning of Mio-Pliocene sediments to the west and southwest towards this high is
visible on some of the seismic sections. Another high is Bogalay-Kyunnyogyi high
which trend NNE through Payagon- Kyaiklat into Nyaungdon-Bawle areas. In these
areas the sedimentary layers above the basement may be folded and faulted during
and after the deposition, because local thinning and thickening of sediments indicate
certain periods of lower uplift during deposition. The folding and faulting in this
region was influenced by the uplift of Arakan Yoma and Bago Yoma together with
volcanic activity of Inner Volcanic Arc. The Northeast _Southwest major cross faults
may be formed as a result of local adjustment of East _West movement. Geological
Succession in Bogalay Township Areas are:
Newer Alluvium (Q2) (Holocene)
The newer alluvium is recent deposits laid down by Bogalay River and its tributaries.
It occupies half of the township area and is mostly found at southern low-lying areas.
Kadonkani Reserve Forest area, Meinmahlkyun, Pyindaye reserved forests are
covered with these newer alluviums. They are made up of clay and silt and are
structureless. These unconsolidated sediments are still building up of mangrove
swamp, mudflat and sand flat of the present township area.
Older Alluvium (Q1) (Pleistocene)
The older alluvium is composed of gravels of various sizes and coarse sands.
These deposits are laid down at Pleistocenecline in the trough, east of Kyunnyogyi-
Bogalay high. Unlike the newer alluvium these sandy deposits occupy the higher
ground. Therefore, they are found at raised village tracts of Padamyagone, Sabegone
and Payarthonesu. In the gravels, the fragments of Quartz, feldspar and various rocks
and also Mica and Pyrites are found. Generally the gravels and coarse sand are made
up of 70 percent of Quartz, 15 percent of Feldspar and 10 percent of rock fragments.
In between these sand layers, clay with lignite is also found. Due to the presence of
large fragments in older alluvium or valley-filled deposits, many large spaces are
present in between them. It makes a good aquifer for accumulation of water. But in
this township area, the water is salty. So this aquifer cannot provide freshwater.
Irrawaddy Formation(Tm-Tpi) (Upper Pliocene)
The rock unit of Irrawaddy Formation is found at Bogalay- Kyunnyogyi high
or ridge which bordered with Mawlamyinekyun Township in the west. The Irrawaddy
Formation is made up of shale, clay, silt and sand stones with pebble units or
conglomerate. The Irrawaddy sediments made up dominantly of massive, poorly
consolidated current bedded sandstone, pebble sandstone and conglomerates were
deposited under continent fluvialite condition. The silty clay member from the Lower
Irrawaddies (near the base), and the silty clays or Danyingon clay at the top most of
the Upper Irrawaddies are likely to have been deposited under lacustrine conditions.
The Irrawaddy Formation was formed at the Bio Zone (1). This zone differs from the
other three (zone 2, zone 3, and zone 4) by the complete absence of micro
foraminifera. (U Kyi Maung ,1968) mentioned that the sediments were probably
deposited in shallow water fluviatile environments and may be compared with the
present day depositional condition in the delta. In the geology map the rock unit of
Irrawaddy Formation is shown with the symbol Tm-Tpi. The age of Irrawaddy
Formation is Upper Miocene to Pliocene. In Bogalay Township area, it is known that
the shallow water fluviatile sedimentation was going on during the Upper Miocene to
Pliocene times. But at the later Pleistocene times the township area was uplifted. The
uplifting continues and present geomorphologic conditions were reached during very
recent times. (Win Win Khine, 1995) Khing or Khine
1.1.4 Climate
There is no weather station at Bogalay and hence meteorological data of
Maubin are used to analyze the climatic condition of the study area. The climate of
the study area is controlled by the geographical location, relief and the periodical
shifting of monsoon winds. The mean annual temperature of the Bogalay Township as
recorded at Maubin Weather Station is 26.2ºC (79.16º F).It is coolest in January with
30.6°C (87.08º F) and the hottest month in April is 36.6 C° (97.88 F°). The annual
range of temperature is 6ºC (42.8ºF) (Table 1.1). The notably low range is due to the
moderating effect of the sea. The sharp variation in daily and monthly temperature
may have profound adverse affect on the growth and survival of mangrove species.
The normal annual rainfall of the study area is 2,446.1mm (96.30 inches). Heavy and
incessant rain occurs when monsoon is strong or when a cyclonic storm is formed in
the Bay of Bengal. The total number of rainy days in a year was 121 days with high
rainfall in June, July and August. Bogalay encountered its hottest days in March,
April and May. The highest maximum temperature is 36.6º C (97.88 ºF) in April. The
lowest value of relative humidity was recorded in the month of February, March and
April. The mean wind speed of 13.89 meters (45.5709 feet) per second was observed
in July. Wind speed tends to change from season to season. However, when the
cyclonic Nargis storm lashed the study area , the surface wind speed reached up to
200 km/h (149.13 miles/h) covering and a diameter of 240 km (149.13 miles).
When the storm passed over the study area in 2008, high waves and storm surge of
3.6m (11.81 feet) hit along the coastal area. Based on satellite images and ground
surveys of forests a considerably large area of mangrove was destroyed. Strong waves
enhance the spread of mangrove species and the growth rate. For optimum growth,
mangroves require a certain amount of fresh water, even though these species are salt
tolerant (hylophyte). Rain water regulates salt concentration in soil and plants, in
addition to fresh water discharged by the stream. Reduction of salt content enhances
the physiological function of the mangrove species.
1.1.6 Tides, Salinity and Inundation
Mangroves are situated within the tidal limits on alluvial flats in the delta and
on sheltered muddy coastal areas. They are stratified depending on how much the area
is affected by the daily rise and fall of the tide. Tidal duration has similar effects on
species distribution, vegetation structure and function of mangrove ecosystems.
Mangrove forests influenced by diurnal tides differ in structure and fertility from
mangrove affected by semi-diurnal tide and those affected by mixed tides
(Aksormkoae, 1993). There is a daily tidal action (twice a day) and the tidal
difference (high tide and low tide) is at least 2 metres (6 feet), in the Bogalay area.
The duration of each rise or fall of tide lasts six hours, and takes place with each
subsequent day. Daily tidal amplitudes of 2004 were collected at Byonemwe Island in
the Bogalay Township, Ayeyarwady Delta. Based on the tidal amplitudes, tidal levels
were classified as Highest High Water Level (HHWL), Mean High Water Level
(MHWL), Mean Water Level (MWL), Mean Low Water Level (MLWL), and Lowest
Low Water Level (LLWL). Highest High Water Level (HHWL) is the highest water
level at spring tide of every month. Mean High Water Level (MHWL) is the average
high water level of spring and neap tides of every month. Mean low water level
(MLWL) is the average low water level of spring and neap tides of every month.
Lowest low water level (LLWL) is the lowest water level at spring tide of every
month. Mean water level (MWL) is the mean water level between the HHWL and
LLWL. The tidal amplitude varies through seasons in the study area. The HHWL,
MHWL and MWL were 3.3m (10.82 feet), 2.8 m (9.19 feet) and 1.7 m (5.58 feet)
respectively. MLWL and LLWL were 71 cm (2.30 feet) and 3 cm (0.1 feet) in this
study area. Mangrove vegetation was found above the mean water level (MWL). No
vegetation existed below the MWL. Therefore vertical distribution of mangroves
occurs between 1.7 m (5.58 feet) and 3.3 m (10.82 feet). (Maung Maung Than, 2006)
Salinity
Tidal duration has a great influence on salinity changes in mangrove areas. Salinity of
water is high during high tide and decreases at low tide. Moreover, water salinity
varies during spring and neap tides. During spring tide, highly saline water intrudes
further into the mangrove areas than that during the neap tides. Most of the 19

mangroves develop well in places where the mean salt concentration is high. On the
other hand, few mangrove species grow in areas where the salinity is very low.
Salinity of river water is related to the distance from the sea, topography, tidal action
and the rain. During the rainy season, river water has low salinity at the neap tide.
With distance further away from the sea, salinity of river water became gradually
lower and lower. In the rainy season, the salinity of river water was almost fresh or
low with 0.2%◦ (part per thousand). However, the salinity in the dry season is quite
high. According to Maung Maung Than, based on the data collected from 2000 to
2004, it was found that salinity of the Bogalay area, varies from 0.2 to 2.4 %◦ (part
per thousand) depending on tidal and seasonal conditions. In the rainy season, the
salinity of river water was almost fresh or 0.2 %◦( Fig: 1.7 and Table 1.7).
1.3 Human Factors
1.3.1 Historical Background
The Ayeyarwady mangrove was under the management of Myaungmya-
Maubin District of the Western Forest Region until 1894. Meinmahlakyun was
declared as the first mangrove reserve in the year 1895. After the opening of the Suez
Canal in 1869, paddy fields were extended in the delta in order to export more rice
from Myanmar. A large number of internal migrations took place, especially from
Upper Myanmar to Lower Myanmar, to obtain land in the reclamation of the delta
plains (Nay Win Oo, 2002).
The success of British efforts to transform Ayeyarwady delta wilderness into a
productive agriculture zone is evidenced by the fact that, Lower Myanmar had
become the world‟s greatest rice exporting area by the end of the 19th century.
Formerly, Bogalay Township was densely forested. However after the British
occupation of Lower Myanmar, due to the extension of agricultural land chiefly for
paddy cultivation, the area of forest land had decreased.
The Ayeyarwady mangrove was reconstituted as Delta Forest District in 1924
and managed systematically with the main object of supplying the Yangon‟s fuel
need during the times of scarcity of kerosene. Firewood, charcoal and other forest
products and the socio-economic stress for the rural population resulted in the
denudation of the forests. Moreover, much mangrove stands were used during the
Second World War to satisfy military demands. The worst exploitation started in
1949, during the insurgent period from 1949 to 1972. Mangrove forests were still rich
up to the end of the 1950s and all species were densely presented in the form of tall
and large girth trees. In addition, agricultural land encroachment began to take place
starting from the late 1970s. A reforestation programme by artificial means was
introduced in 1975.
The programme covered the largest extension of mangrove forests in Bogalay
Township. The total area of these mangrove forests in 1954 was 234,515 ha (579,493
acres) but decreased to 178,642 ha (441,429 acres) in 1984 (F.D, 2009). 23
After 30 years of overexploitation, rich mangrove forests had been transformed to low
forest in the Ayeyarwady delta. Hence, 55,873 ha (138,064 acres) of the mangrove
forests disappeared from the ground within three decades. Feasibility study on
mangrove forestation (1991-92) was introduced by UNDP/FAO and MoECF. The
Forest Department responded for prohibition of the production of firewood and
charcoal in 1993. In 1996-99/ 1999-2001, environmentally sustainable food security
and micro-income opportunity in the Ayeyarwady (Mangrove) Delta was planned by
UNDP/FAO and MoECF. An annual planting programme was launched in degraded
mangroves and abandoned paddy fields and a total of 15,240 ha (37,658.5 acres) have
been established by the end of 2006 in three townships, namely Bogalay,
Mawlamyaingkyun, and Laputta.(Planning and Statistics Division,FD,2006)
Unfortunately, the Ayeyarwady Delta was severely impacted by the cyclone Nargis,
and the mangrove vegetation was damaged by strong winds and storm surge
(associated flooding were devastating and the destructive winds caused further
damage). Based on satellite images and ground surveys of forest cover in the pre-and
post-Nargis periods, 16,800 ha (41,513.3 acres) (30%) of natural forest were lost as a
result of the cyclone. In addition, an estimated 21,000 ha (51,891.6 acres) of forest
plantations were damaged (TCG, 2008 Post-Nargis Periodic Review 1).
Generally, the fundamental reason of depletion of forests in the Delta was the
extended production of paddy by the British capitalists who occupied lower Myanmar
in 1852. The basic factor of that development was the completion of the Suez Canal in
1869. The paddy sown area in lower Myanmar increased sharply from 26,400 ha
(65,235.1 acres) to 2,631,200 ha (6,501,770 acres) between 1830 and 1900 (Win
Maung, 1982). According to GIS section in Myanmar Forest Department, about 56%
of the original mangroves was converted to agriculture and other land uses by
activities of human beings from 1924 to 2001. The Ayeyarwady Delta has changed its
hardware as well as software sides; physical landscape and political, social, and
economic systems changed throughout one and a half century period. Physical
landscape has changed due to natural causes through erosion and salination,
deterioration of marine ecosystem, and man-made 24
deforestation. On the software side, the Delta witnessed Myanmar‟s nationalist
socialist system, and military authoritarian system and democracy system. It also saw
several types of economic systems experimented with and practiced on feudal tribute
system, plural economy, commercialization and export-oriented free market system,
mixed-economy, centrally planned command/controlled economic system, and
market-oriented transitional economy. There was, to some extent, an improvement in
living standard of the people in the Delta due to increase in market price of rice in the
1990s. In 1993-94, according to the official statistics, income in terms of total crop
value per rural population, the Delta, including (Ayeyarwady Region, Yangon Region
and Bago Region) outperformed other states and regions in Myanmar.
1.3.2 Demography
1.3.2.1 Population Growth
Generally, population growth in a region is due mainly to natural increase and
migration. Since, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, internal migrations took
place, especially from Upper Myanmar to Lower Myanmar.
These two factors responsible for population increase were affected by
changes in the political, economic and social conditions of the region. After
independence the population had increased in this region, due to its economy, security
and defense etc. In 1891, the population was 26,324 persons. According to the India
Census issued in 1901, the township had 43,756 persons and the population increased
to 17,432 persons. Thus, in the ten -year period the population growth rate was 5.2
percent at that time. In 1911, the total population was 58,919 people with a growth
rate in this ten - year period was 3 percent. (Table1.8). And then according to the
India Population Report published in 1921, Bogalay Township had 84,896 persons,
25,977 persons greater than that of 1911. The average increase rate for the 10-year
period was 3.7 percent. 25
According to the 1931 Census the total population was 97,589 persons with the
average annual growth rate of 1.4 percent. According to the census 1921 and 1931 the
increase in the township‟s population was due to natural growth. Population census
could not be taken for over 30 years due to the World War II and political instability
after the independence.
From 1931 to 1963 the population increased to 103,202 people and the growth rate
was 2.1 percent at that time. On the basis of the 1963, the township’s total population
was 202, 832 persons and it increased to 230,623 persons in 1973. A fairly complete
census was taken in 1973 for the whole country including Bogalay.
The number of increase during the period 1963-1973 was 27,791 persons and the
average growth rate was 1.3 percent. According to the 1983 estimate, there were
294,370 persons living in the township. Thus, the number of increase during the 1973-
1983 was 64,347 more people with the average growth rate of 0.2 percent per year.
The total population of Bogalay in 1993 was 309,992 persons increased about 15,022
persons than that of 1983 with a growth rate of 2.8 percent.
The total population further increased to 439,210 in 2005 and the growth rate
from 1993 to 2005 was 2.9 percent. The higher growth rate during the 1993-2005 was
mainly as a result of prevalence of peace and security within the township, higher
degree of accessibility, lower infant mortality rate due to medical progress and better
health care and the development of agriculture and commerce. In 2009, the total
population had decreased to 328,628 people with a growth rate of (-7) percent, due to
the Cyclone Nargis in 2008.
The growth of population in Bogalay Township directly or indirectly affects
the use of forest resources from the Bogalay mangrove area.In the case of Cyclone
Nargis, the population of Bogalay Township had decreased to 328,628 in 2009.
This study area is composed of 71 village tracts around Meinmahla Reserved Forest,
Kadonkani Reserved Forest and Pyindaye Reserved Forest. Some village tracts settle
permanently in this mangrove reserve forest, while some settle at working season with
the temporary huts in their fields. Bogalay mangrove area is potentially attractive to
seasonal settlers because of the availability of vast areas of farm land for paddy field
and garden.

 

A Geographical Study on the Conservation and Rehabilitation of
Mangrove Forests in Bogalay Township, Ayeyarwady Region
CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF PLATES
ABSTRACT
Page
INTRODUCTION
Location of the Study Area
Research Problem
Hypotheses
Aim and Objectives
Previous Investigations and Literature Reviews
Research Data and Methods
Research Design
Research Organization
Definitions
Acronyms
CHAPTER I GEOGRAPHICAL BASES OF THE STUDY AREA 1
1.1 Physical Factors 1
1.1.1 Location, Size, Shape, and Boundaries 1
1.1.2 Relief and Drainage 5
1.1.3 Geology 8
1.1.4 Climate 11
1.1.5 Soils 13
1.1.6 Tide, Salinity and Inundation 18
1.2 Human Factors 22
1.2.1 Historical Background 22
1.2.2 Demography 24
1.2.2.1 Population Growth 24
1.2.2.2 Population Distribution 26
1.2.2.3 Population Density 30
1.3 Institutional Factor 38
1.4 Social Factors 40
1.4.1 Education 40
1.4.2 Health Condition 44
1.4.3 Occupations 46
1.5 Cultural Factors 48
1.5.1 Ethnic Groups 48
1.5.2 Religion 49
1.6 Economic Factors 51
CHAPTER II CURRENT CONDITIONS OF MANGROVE
FORESTS AND THEIR UTILIZATION IN
BOGALAY TOWNSHIP 57
2.1 Classification of Land Cover and Land Use
(Post-Nargis) 57
2.2 Utilization of Mangrove Products 64
2.2.1 Utilization of Wood Products 66
2.2.2 Utilization of Non-Wood Products 67
CHAPTER III CHANGES OF MANGROVE FORESTS IN
BOGALAY TOWNSHIP 70
3.1 Change Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover 70
3.2 Causes of Change 81
3.2.1 Natural Factors 81
3.2.1.1 Sea Level Condition 81
3.2.1.2 Storm 81
3.2.1.3 Salinity Condition 86
3.2.2 Human Induced Factors 88
3.2.2.1 Conversion of Paddy Cultivation 88
3.2.2.2 Human Settlement 91
3.2.2.2.1Increase of Population in Mangrove Areas 91
3.2.2.3 Fisheries 94
3.2.2.4 Road Constructions 98
CHAPTER IV CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION
OF MANGROVE FORESTS 103
4.1 History of Mangrove Conservation and
Rehabilitation in Bogalay Township 103
4.2 Government Policy and Implementation 107
4.3 The Role of the Ministry of Environmental Conservation
and Forestry 109
4.4 The Role of NGOs’ Activities 115
4.5 The Role of Community Forestry 121
CHAPTER V FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND DISCUSSIONS 128
CONCLUSION 142
REFERENCES 145
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
Table 1.1 Monthly Rainfall and Temperature (1979-2008) 12
in Maubin Township
Table 1.2 Soil Legend of Bogalay Township (2010) 15
Table 1.3 Soil Classes of Bogalay Township (2010) 16
Table 1.4 Monthly Mean Salinity of the Study Area from 2000 to 2004 19
Table 1.5 Inundation Classes of Mangroves (Watson, 1928) 20
Table 1.6 Monthly Mean Tidal Amplitudes of the Study Area in 2004 21
Table 1.7 Common Species found in the Various Inundation
Classes of Mangroves 21
Table 1.8 Population Growth of Bogalay Township (1891, 1901, 1911,
1921, 1931, 1963,1973,1983,1993, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2009,2010) 26
Table 1.9 Population Distributions by Wards and Village Tracts in
Bogalay Township (2009) 28
Table 1.10 Population Density of Bogalay Township in 2009 34
Table 1.11 Population Densities of Bogalay Town and Village Tracts (2010) 35
Table 1.12 The Population of Bogalay Township by Gender Ratio (2009) 37
Table 1.13 Percentages of Ethnic Groups in Bogalay Township (2011) 47
Table 1.14 Religions of Study Area in 2010 50
Table 2.1 Changes of Mangrove Forest Area during the Period from
1924 to 2010 in Bogalay Township 57
Table 2.2 Total Area of each Land Use and Land Cover Types in 58
2010 (Post- Nargis)
Table 2.3 Paddy Cultivation of Bogalay Township (1972-73 to 2009-10) 62
Table 2.4 Direct Products from Mangrove Forests 64
Table 3.1 Total Area of each Land Use and Land Cover Types
in 1989, 2000 , 2010 74
Table 3.2 The Result of Change Detection Analysis Based on the
Comparison of Image Classification in 1989 and 2000 74
Table 3.3 The Result of Change Detection Analysis Based on
the Comparison of Image Classification in 2000 and 2010 76
Table 3.4 The Result of Change Detection Analysis Based on the
Comparison of Image Classification in 1989 and 2010 78
Table 3.5 Protection of Reserved Forest in Bogalay Township 92
Table 3.6 Townships Extract Salt in Ayeyarwady Delta (2002) 98
Table 4.1 Areas to be established as plantations or protected forests
during the Master Plan period for the Ayeyarwady Mangroves 115
Table 5.1 The Fifteen most mangroves rich countries and their
cumulative percentages (2010) 134
Table 5.2 Changes in Southeast Asian Mangroves Area
(1980, 1990 and 2000) 135
Table 5.3 Reserved Forests in Bogalay Township (2005) 137
Table 5.4 Reserved Forests in Ayeyarwady Delta (1924, 1954, 1974, 138
1983,1990,1995,2001 and 2007)
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
Figure 1.1 (a) The Union of Myanmar and Ayeyarwady Region 2
(b) Ayeyarwady Region and Bogalay Township 3
(c) Location of Bogalay Township 4
Figure 1.2 Relief and Drainage of Bogalay Township 7
Figure 1.3 Geology of Bogalay Township 10
Figure 1.4 Monthly Rainfalls and Temperature (1979-2008) in 12
Maubin Township
Figure 1.5 Soil Types of Bogalay Township 17
Figure 1.6 Monthly Mean Salinity of the Study Area from 2000 to 2004 19
Figure 1.7 Monthly Mean Tidal Amplitude of the Study Area in 2004 20
Figure 1.8 Population Distribution of Bogalay Township (2010) 29
Figure 1.9 Population Density of Bogalay Township (2010) 32
Figure 1.10 Village Tracts of Bogalay Township (2009) 33
Figure 2.1 Changes of Mangrove Forests Area during the Period from 58
1924 to 2010 in Bogalay Township
Figure 2.2 Types of Land Use and Land Cover in 2010 (Post-Nargis) 59
Figure 2.3 Land Cover Classifications in Bogalay Township ( 2010) 60
Figure 2.4 Paddy Cultivation of Bogalay Township 64
Figure 3.1 Flow Chart Showing the Major Steps of Land Use and 71
Land Cover Classification
Figure 3.2 Land Cover Classifications in Bogalay Township (1989) 72
Figure 3.3 Land Cover Classifications in Bogalay Township (2000) 72
Figure 3.4 Cyclone Nargis: Affected Areas and Cyclone Path 82
Figure 3.5 Mangrove and Flooded Area, Ayeyarwady Region 84
Figure 3.6 Cyclone Nargis: Most Affected Areas by percent of Population
and Area 86
Figure 3.7 Salinity Distribution of Ayeyarwady Delta 88
LIST OF PLATES
Plate Page
Plate 1.1 Paddy land at Hayman Village, Bogalay Township 39
Plate 1.2 (a) Multiple Uses Construction at Daminnaung Village,
Bogalay Township 41
(b) Multiple Uses Construction (now opening primary school) 42
at Daminnaung Village, Bogalay Township
(c) Storm Shelter at Shwe Pyi Aye Village, Bogalay Township 42
Plate 1.3 (a) Monastic School at Bogalay Town,Bogalay Township 43
(b) Bogalay Education College at Bogalay Town, Bogalay Township 43
Plate 1.4 (a) General Hospital of Bogalay 45
(b) Eye Clinic,Bogalay Town 45
(c) T.B and Malaria Clininc,Bogalay Town 45
Plate 1.5 (a, b, c, d, e , f) Assistance of NGOs (pigs, chicken, fish larva,
garden and model stoves) northern part of Pyindaye group 47
Plate 1.6 (a) Aung Setkyar Pagoda at Bogalay Myoma 50
(b) Hindu Temple
(c ,d) U Shingyi Nat and Hold a ceremony to propitiate nats
Plate 1.7 (a,b) Rice Mills at Bogalay Myoma, Bogalay Township 56
Plate 2.1 Firewood Trolley (Byu, Madama and other species 66
of Mangrove ), Bogalay Myoma
Plate 2.2 Charcoal Bags (Madama, Byu and other species), Bogalay Myoma 67
Plate 2.3 (a) Nipa palm (Nipa fruticans) 68
(b,d) A commercial market for nipa Shingles
(c) Handiwork and Sap
Plate 3.1 Post-Nargis of Bogalay Township 83
Plate 3.2 (a) Ploughed Fields for Summer Paddy (Pawsanmhwe)
at Tharpaung Village, Kadonkani Reserve Forest
Plate 3.2 (b) Summer Paddy Farming Group at Malot Villge ,Bogalay Township 90
Plate 3.3(a) Intrusion of human settlement at Pyindaye Reserve Forest 93
(b) Garden Land at Padamyakone Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest
Plate 3.4 Fishery market at Setsan Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest 95
Plate 3.5 Fish pond at Setsan Village Tracts, Pyindaye Reserve Forest 96
Plate 3.6 Bogalay-Setsan-Htawpine-Ahmar Road Construction Project 101
Plate 3.7 (a) Bogalay-Kyeinchaung-Kadonkani Road 102
(b) Transportation Network of Ayeyarwady Delta 102
Plate 4.1 (a) Protection of Kadonkani Reserved Forest, 108
(b) Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary (Myauktayar Camp)
(c) Warning Signboard of Bogalay Town
Plate 4.2 Sheaf of Paddy Fields at Malawt Village, Kadonkani Reserve Forest 110
Plate 4.3 (a) Paddy Fields at Hayman Village , Paddy Field at Daminnaung 112
Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest
(b) Pyindaye Reserve Forest
(c) Sea Sesame, Daminnaung Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest
Plate 4.4(a) Myauktayar Aungtheikdi Pagoda and within Meinmahla Wildlife 114
Sanctuary
(b) Myauktayar Camp at Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary, Bogalay
Township
(c) Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary (Post-Nargis)
Plate 5.1 (a, b) Water, insufficient safe during summer to get to stand in line for 130
drinking water (Post-Nargis, every summer) (Hinterland of
Bogalay Myoma), at Ayeyarwady Delta
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Firstly, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to my monk (Sayartaw
U Pawarabiwuntha, Nyaungtone Pali University, Bahan Township, Yangon),Daw Tin
Nyunt (TEO,retired), my foster mother(aunty), parents and to my family who brought
me up, educated, provided financial assistance and gave encouragement in my long
life.
Iwould also like to thank members of the PhD Steering Committee for their
guidance, suggestion and time since preliminary class.
I am greatly indebted to my supervisor Prof. Dr. Win Tint and co-supervisor
Dr. Nay Win Oo, Department of Geography, University of Yangon for their kind
discussion guidance, time and advices on this research work.
I want to thank Retired Rector U Hla Tun Aung, Mawlamyine University for
his invaluable advice and encouragement given to me in preparation of this
dissertation. Thanks are also due to Prof. Maung Maung Aye, Rector-in- Charge
(Retired), University of Distance Education who highlighted me on the environmental
field.The researcher wishes to specially thank Daw Aye Aye New,Referee,Professor
and Head, Department of Geography, Hpa-an University and Dr.Win Maung,external
examiner, Pro-Rector ( Retired),Sittway University, for their constructive suggestions
and interest.
Thanks are extended to the officials of the Forest Department of Bogalay
Township and many others from different departments in the township and villages
especially, Daminnaung village, Setsan village, Ahseigyi village, Hayman village,
Tharpaung village, Malot village and Byonemhwe Island for their assistance and
Cyclone Nargis’s experience.
I would like to especially indebt the (NGOs) staff of FREDA, JICA, MERN,
MIMU, MSN, ECCDI, IOM, SDC and EcoDev.FREDA, NGOs also helped, awarded
scholarship and factual information concerned with the research.
ABSTRACT
The study area is latitudinally located between 15°42´ North and 16° 28´
North and longitudinally between 95 °15´ East and 95° 35´ East. It is one of the 26
townships in Ayeyarwady Region, the Union of Myanmar. Ayeyarwady Region
especially Bogalay Township was once home of mangroves in Myanmar. Mangroves
in Myanmar have been destroyed for various purposes over the last several decades.
For decades mangrove forests have been declined, decimated to create
communities, for fish and shrimp farms and paddy fields and wood for charcoal.
Destruction of mangrove forests due to land use change more than 80 % of mangroves
in Bogalay Township were destroyed between 1924 and 1995. GIS techniques and
Remote Sensing (RS) with Arc GIS 9.3 and ENVI 4.7 software were used to analyze:
image classification (Standard Supervise Classification, Maximum likelihood
classifier and Change detection Analysis), the evaluation of the suitable mangrove
plantation sites is a very important activity for future mangrove reforestation. It gives
negative impacts not only to mangrove forests and their ecosystems but also to
adjoining coastal ecosystems as a whole. It clearly indicates alleviation of the poverty
most urgent task to be carried out effectively by any possible means. Most local
inhabitants now realize the importance of the existence of thick mangrove forests, but
they have to cut the trees for their livelihood, as they can barely earn from other
sources. Consequently all living creatures will suffer serious threats to their lives, if
we do not conserve and restore mangrove ecosystems. In order to undertake these
activities, first we must conserve existing mangrove forests. Second, we must utilize
mangrove resources in a sustainable manner, and manage them rationally. Third, we
must rehabilitate mangrove, and restore damages or totally destroyed mangrove
forests and their resources.

A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY ON

THE CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION OF
MANGROVE FORESTS IN BOGALAY TOWNSHIP,
AYEYARWADY REGION

 

PhD DISSERTATION

 

SANDA HLAING

DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY
UNIVERSITY OF YANGON
MYANMAR
March , 2013
 

Introduction
Mangroves are coastal forests found in sheltered estuaries and along river banks and
lagoons in the tropics and subtropics. The term 'Mangrove' describes both the ecosystem and the
plant families that have developed specialized adaptations to live in this tidal environment
(Tomlinson, 1986).
In the tropics, mangrove forests have been predominant in sheltered coastlines, mudflats
and riverbanks with their significant characteristics of tolerance to salt and brackish water. They
grow abundantly in the tropical regions with continuous high temperature, prolific rainfall, and
appropriate terrain (FAO, 1994).
Mangroves forests are also very rich in biodiversity. Mangroves grow in intertidal zones
along coasts and estuaries in areas sheltered from strong tidal action and wind/sea storm. The
occurrence and distribution of mangrove species are governed by parameters like temperature,
wind, tidal range and frequency, availability of fresh water, soil type, terrain and salinity. On a
local scale, factors like salinity, temperature, frequency and duration of tides, topography,
sedimentation, and freshwater influx and light regime interact to produce the environmental
settings for the growth, zonation and sustainability of mangrove (Nay Win Oo, 2004).
The world mangrove total was estimated 5.93 million hectares (14.65 million acres)
(FAO and UNEP, 2000). The mangrove area in Asia equals more than 5.8 million hectares
(14.33 million acres) and accounts for some 98 percent of global mangrove area, representing the
highest percentage of mangroves worldwide (The world's mangroves 1980 - 2005 FAO, 2007).
Myanmar is situated in continental Southeast Asia and covers a mangrove area of considerable
extent. The status of mangrove of Ayeyarwady (1923)was estimated 271,749 ha (671,491.98
acres) (Working Plan Data) , Ayeyarwady (2003) at 90,386 ha (223,343.80 acres) ( JICA),
Ayeyarwady (2007) at 65,127 ha (160,931 acres) (FD, Yangon), Rakhine (1996) at 157,992.40
ha (390,399.22 acres) (JIFTA) and Tanintharyi (2000) at 262,063.50 ha (647,558.91 acres)
(FAO).
There are 29 mangrove species growing in the mangrove forests of Myanmar, which are
the habitats of 69 fish species, 13 prawn species, 4 crab species and 9 shellfish species, 9 oysters
and mollusks. In addition, the mangrove forests provide shelter for 6 mammals, 30 avifaunas, 1
crocodile (Crocodiles porodiles) species (Forest Department, 2003).
The main causes for depletion of mangrove forests are (1)overproduction (extraction) of
firewood and charcoal , (2) extension of paddy lands, (3) intrusion of garden land and human
settlements, (4) extension of salt industry , (5) extension of fishery, (6) unauthorized settlement
within the reserved forests, (7) unawareness of the value of mangroves, (8) indiscriminate
extraction of forest products and (9) weakness in prevention and conservation, (10) natural
disaster.
Cyclone Nargis struck Myanmar on May 2, 2008 as a category 3 storm with recorded
wind speeds of up to 200 km/h and a diameter of 240 km (149.13 miles)(PONJA,2008). It was
the worst natural disaster in the history of Myanmar and affected more than 50 townships,
mainly in the regions of Yangon and Ayeyarwady. The Ayeyarwady Delta was severely
impacted by the cyclone, and the mangrove vegetation was damaged by wave surge and strong
winds.
Based on the information gathering network of the Ministry of Forestry and the analysis
of satellite imagery, the cyclone affected both the natural forests and plantation stands especially
in the Ayeyarwady Region. About 14,000 ha (34,594.4 acres) out of 275,000 ha (679,532 acres)
of mangroves were lost. Besides mangroves, the Forest Department had established some tree
plantations in the Ayeyarwady and Yangon Region. Out of the 63,000 ha (155,675 acres) of tree
plantations in the area, about a third (21,000 ha / 51,891.6 acre) was damaged by the cyclone.
If the forests had remained intact, especially along the coasts fringing the sea shore and
river mouths, they would have greatly buffered the impact of the wave surge, and considerably
reduced loss of life. Studies, mostly since post-tsunami (Indian Ocean) event, are providing
evidence to the protective role of mangroves from wave surges and strong winds.
In order to develop a comprehensive recovery plan, it is compulsory to elaborate a sound
analysis and better knowledge of the status of the forest in the cyclone affected areas, including
parameters such as distribution, stocking, and regeneration. This would lay the foundation for
planning subsequent forestry activities which call for protection, regeneration, reforestation and
sustainable harvesting of the resource (FAO June, 2008).
Efforts to conserve and rehabilitate the mangroves of the Ayeyarwady Delta are urgently
required to improve the sustainability of coastal development in the region.
Location of the Study Area
Bogalay Township located in Pyapon District is one of the 26 townships in the
Ayeyarwady Region. It is situated at the southern end of the Ayeyarwady River. Bogalay
Township lies within 15° 40'N and 16° 35'N latitudes and 95 °15´E and 95°35'E longitudes. The
Township is 115.873 km (72 miles) away from Yangon in the Southwest direction . Land
surface is slightly lower from north to south and elevation of the town is about 2.5 metre (8.2021
feet) above sea level. It is bounded by Kyaiklat Township in the north, Bay of Bengal and Gulf
of Mottama in the South, Pyapon Township in the east, and Laputta and Mawlamyinekyun
Township in the west.
The study area includes 9 wards, 71 village tracts, 579 villages and 64,327 households.
Total area of the township is 2,250.36 sq.km( 868.87 sq miles) stretching east to west 39.03 km
(24.25 miles) and north to south 57.66 km (35.83 miles). Bogalay has triangular shape.
The following are the reason s to select Bogalay as the study area.
(a) being located as part of the Southern portion of Ayeyarwady Delta.
(b) being the resident’s livelihoods depend mainly on the fishing, charcoal making,
shrimp and salt farming by clearing mangrove trees, and rice cultivation and used of
minor forest products such as honey and nipa leave collection for roofing.
(c) being degradated, natural ecosystems are changing in the Delta area and local
communities have lost opportunities to access mangrove forests for their survival
Research problem
The degradation of mangrove forests in Bogalay Township varies spatially.
Hypotheses
Spatial differences of mangrove degradation are related to the natural and human factors.
The conversion of mangrove forests land into other types of land accelerates the rate of
mangrove degradation.
The mangrove forests under systematic control and management are less degraded.
Aim and Objectives
To analyse the geographical point of view for conservation and rehabilitation of
mangrove forests in Bogalay Township which are degrading and under the destructive condition
due to natural and human induced factors.
Objectives
• To observe mangrove environment in Bogalay Township.
• To clarify the current condition of mangrove forests in Bogalay Township.
• To analyse the changes of mangrove condition in Bogalay Township.
• To find the ways of conservation and rehabilitation.
• To give the base line data for conservation and rehabilitation.
Previous Investigations and Literature Review
There are some previous investigations on the mangrove forests of Ayeyarwady Region
in Department of Geography.
The first thesis was written from the geographical point of view, presented for the
requirement of M.A degree. “General Land use of Bogalay Township” (Myanmar Language)
was written by Khin Thitagu (1983). This thesis presented land cover types of Bogalay
Township.
Next, thesis presented the “Socio-Economic Geography of Bogalay Township”. This is
not concerned with the conservation and rehabilitation of mangrove forest area, but it is very
useful as a reference thesis for research work. This thesis is written by Win Win Khine (1995).
The third thesis is “Agricultural Landuse of Bogalay Township, Ayeyarwady Region”
written by Tin Tin Htwe (1997). The author highlighted landuse of agriculture in Bogalay
Township.
The following papers are emphasized on mangrove forests.
Kyaw Soe Win (1999), presented a research work on “A Geographical Study of Tidal
Forest (Mangrove) Depletion in Ayeyarwady Division” (Region), as a M.A thesis, highlighting
the factors that caused mangrove forests depletion. Included in the factors are overcutting for
firewood and charcoal, the extension of cultivated land for the increased population, the
construction of such infrastructures as roads, bridges and buildings for public utility, the
conversion of the tidal forest into salterns and fish ponds, the encroachment of settlement and
weak management on the prevention and conservation of the existing mangrove forest.
Nay Win Oo (2002) in his PhD dissertation on “Deforestation to Mangrove Dwellers in
the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar” analyzed the complex interaction between local mangrove
dwellers and the mangrove resource, to suggest practicable means by which more sustainable
exploitation can be operated under modern management approaches. The findings reveal that
deforestation of mangrove forests is related to local activities such as fishing, charcoal
production, commercial nipa farming, perception of dwellers and the issue of migration.
Nay Win Oo(2002) in his next paper on “Present State and Problems of Mangrove
Management in Myanmar” analyzed mangroves situation and mangrove formation, and
ecological importance. The findings reveal that population increase and political instability in the
immediate post-independence period threatened the mangrove environment and economic
growth. Based on the feasibility study on mangrove projects in Laputta and Bogalay townships
carried out by Forest Department in collaboration with UNDP, FAO, future prospects for the
Myanmar mangroves should be controlled and implemented by integrated resource management
approach.
Nay Win Oo (2003) presented a research paper on “Changes in Habitat Conditions and
Conservation of Mangrove Ecosystem in Myanmar: A Case Study of Pyindaye Forest Reserve,
Ayeyarwady Delta”, highlighting the nature of mangrove forest ecosystem, dependence of
human life with the system and the unawareness of the value
of the mangrove forests by the local inhabitants, leading to the depletion of the whole ecosystem.
However, there are some studies on Mangrove Forests such as mangrove ecosystems:
“Some Economic and Natural Benefits” (1995) and the next paper is “The Tropical Cyclone
Nargis: the worst natural disaster to strike the Southen Ayeyarwady River Delta of Myanmar in
early May 2008” (International Conference on Sustainable Coastal and Ocean Development” the
EAS (East Asian Seas) Congress 2009), Manila, Philippines, Maung Maung Aye, Professor
Emeritus, Department of Geography, University of Yangon.This paper included the most
common natural disaster in Myanmar and highlighted as a natural defense needs healthy
mangrove.
There is a paper written by Maung Maung Than, Ya Min Thant, KANZAKI Mamoru
with the title of “Preliminary Report on the Impacts of Cyclone Nargis on Mangrove Forests and
Human Settlement in Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar.” (2008)
This paper reported Cyclone Nargis –related damage to mangrove forests and local
communities.
There is a thesis written by Aye Thin Mu (2006), with the title of “Assessment of Land
Cover Changes and Their Impacts on the Environment of Mangrove Forests (A Case Study in
Bogalay Township)”.
Next paper is written by Myat Myat Moe (2009), with the title of “Botanical Study on the
Importance of Mangrove Ecosystem for Conservation and Management Purposes”. This paper
presented botanical point of view of Mangrove Ecosystem.
Research Data and Methods
Data collection will be conducted to provide basic up to date facts and figures of
field research. It contributed to a better understanding of the actual situation. The methodology
will be used for primary data collection included field survey /observation, personal
communication, interview, expert’s opinion and questionnaire survey for socio-economic status
and daily livelihood activities, social networking for trade, social relations and social structures
of these villages, schoolchildren’s condition as well as village education matters. This research
included random sampling method to gain information on income status regarding charcoal and
firewood production, cultivation, fishery, and others such as general store owners and casual
laborers.
Secondary data will be collected from the department concerned as Settlement and Land
Record Department, Immigration and Man Power Department, Township Development
Committee, Township Forest Department (Bogalay and Pyapon), Academic Institutions, FAO,
UNDP, JICA, FREDA, MERN, EcoDev, BANCA and MSN, ECCDI, MIMU, Mingalar
Myanmar, Metta Foundation, SDF and NAG, SDC, etc. to get land type conditions,
demographic factors, forest types and species and forests rules and regulations , forests
conservation such as numbers on reforestation, forest inventory data and about forest reserved
data. Moreover, to access that a number of returnee households in township from International
Organization for Migration.
Appropriate statistical methods will be used to analyze the secondary data. Both
qualitative and quantitative methods also will be used. 1:63,360 topographic maps (1695-
04,1695-07,1695-08,1695-11,1695-12,1595-01, 1595-02,1595-05,1595-06 and 1595-09)
published by Burma Survey Department (1924) and LANDSAT 5 TM and LANDSAT 7ETM+
Images of 1989, 2000 and 2010 and then field survey will be carried out etc. to study
environmental conditions of research areas as mangrove environments, composition of
mangroves and land use condition. GIS techniques and Remote Sensing (RS) with Arc GIS 9.3
and ENVI 4.7 software were used to analyze: image classification (Standard Supervise
Classification, Maximum likelihood classifier and Change detection Analysis); the evaluation of
the suitable mangrove plantation sites is a very important activity for future mangroves
reforestation.
Research Design
Source: Researcher’s draft
Research Organization
This dissertation is organized into five chapters, with an introduction, a conclusion and
suggestions. Introduction includes research hypothesis, research problems, aims and objectives,
definitions, sources of data and methodology, previous investigations and literature reviews, list
of acronyms.
Chapter I focus on physical factors which soil, tide, salinity and inundation and human
geography such as human factors, institutional factors, social factors, cultural factors and
economic factors.
Chapter II examines land cover and land use change in post Nargis, 2010 which includes
utilization of Mangrove wood products and utilization of Mangrove non-wood products. The
impact of cyclone Nargis indicated the alarming situation of mangrove and coastal forest
depletion in the delta region. Impact of such activities on mangrove degradation is also
examined.
Chapter III highlights change analysis of land use and land cover, cause of change,
natural factors (sea level condition, storm and salinity condition) and human induced factors
(conversion of paddy cultivation, human settlement, fisheries and road construction).
Chapter IV studies the conservation and rehabilitation of mangrove. Unless proper
remedial measures are immediately adopted these forests will soon disappear.
Chapter V discusses findings, suggestions and discussions on how to conserve the
mangrove forests and aware of the importance of mangrove including beach and dune forests in
mitigating the impacts of natural storm hazards.
Definitions
Mangrove: Generally, mangroves are trees and bushes growing below the high-water level of
spring tides (FAO, 1952). Their root systems are thus regularly inundated with saline water, even
though it may be diluted due to fresh water surface run-off and only
flooded once or twice a year. (Mangrove Forest Management Guidelines, FAO Forestry Paper
117, 1994)
Forests: Forests are easily recognized as association of large, woody, perennial tree species, and
with a more or less closed canopy of leaves overhead. They vary enormously in density and
physical appearance. (Maung Maung Aye, Elements of Geography, 1988)
Conservation: The protection, preservation, management, or restoration of natural environments
and the ecological communities. Conservation is generally held to include the management of
human use of natural resources for current public benefit and sustainable social and economic
utilization. (Houghton Mifflin, Science Dictionary, 2002)
Restoration and Rehabilitation: The term “restoration” has been adopted to specifically mean
any activity that aims to return system to a preexisting condition (Whether or not this was
pristine) (Sensu Lewis 1990b), whereas the term “rehabilitation” is applied more generally and
is used to denote any activity (including restoration and habitat creation) that aims to convert a
degraded system to a stable alternative (Mangrove Action Project restoration Team, 2005).
Rehabilitation of coastal forests can be defined as the act of partially replacing their structural
or functional characteristics that have been diminished or lost (Field, 1998)
It means re-establishing some of the ecological attributes. Restoration of coastal forests is
the act of bringing them back, as nearly as possible, to their original condition. By implication,
all the key ecological processes and functions including as the former biodiversity are reestablished
(Wells et al., 2006)
Ecology: Ecology is the science of the interrelationships of organisms in and to their complete
environment. (Spurr and Barnes, 1980)
Ecosystem: The relationships among all the living things in an area and the physical
environment in which they live (Environment Words Dictionary, 1985)
Environment: Environment is that which surrounds, the sum total of the conditions of the
surroundings within which an organism, or group, or an object, exist including the natural
conditions, and the natural as modified by human activity (Audrey N.Clark,1990).
Land Use: Land Use is characterized by the arrangements, activities and inputs by people to
produce change or maintain a certain land cover type. Land Use defined in this way establishes a
direct link between land cover and the actions of people in their environment (FAO, 1993).
Land Cover: The observed physical cover, as seen from the ground or through remote sensing,
including the vegetation (nature or planted) and human construction which over the earth
surface. Water, ice, bare rock, sand similar surface also count as land cover. (FAO, 1993)
Depletion: The process that reduces the amount of something
(Environment Words Dictionary, 1985)
Degradation: Making something less useful, less valuable or less beautiful
(Environment Words Dictionary, 1985)
Degeneration: Become worse in quality or strength, etc
(Environment Words Dictionary, 1985)
Deforestation: The complete clearance of forests by cutting and/or burning
(Environment Words Dictionary, 1985)
Community Forestry: Afforestation of areas where there is not sufficient fuelwood or other
forest products for community use
Planting of trees and exploiting of forest products to obtain food supplies,
consumer products and incomes.
Community Forestry is neither regional development forestry nor an industrial enterprise
based on forest products. (ECCDI, 2011)
Community Forestry means different things in different social, political, geographical and
ecological contexts. Community Forestry involves a number of users who live in the same area
and primarily carried out by peasant farmers or smallholders (Adams, 1993)
Supervised Classification: In supervised classification a small area, called training site, which is
representative of each terrain category or class on the image is defined by the anlyst. Spectral
values for each pixel in a training site are used to define decision space for each class a high
reflectance in the NIR band.
Classification: Classification is the process of assigning thematic values to continuous pixels
into a finite number of landcover classes /themes. A pixel is assigned a landcover theme if
satisfies a certain set of criterion corresponding to a particular Landcover class.
(WWF-Pakistan: GIS/RS based assessment of Mangrove Resource-Final Report, 2005)
WGS- 84: A consistent set of parameters describing the size and shape of the earth, the positions
of a network of points with respect to the center of mass of the earth, transformations from major
geodetic datums and the potential of the earth (usually in terms of harmonic coefficients).
(WWF-Pakistan: GIS/RS based assessment of Mangrove Resource-Final Report, 2005)
Ground truthing refers to the acquisition of knowledge about the study area from
fieldwork, analysis of aerial photography, personal experience etc (Schradar and Pouncy, 1997).
Acronyms
ACTMANG Action for Mangrove Restoration
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AMI Aide Medicale International
ASFN ASEAN Social Forestry Network
BANCA Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association
BDA Border area Development Association
CBOs Community Based Organizations
CF Community Forestry
CFI Community Forestry Instruction
CFUGS Community Forestry User Groups
ECLOF National Ecumenical Church Fund, Myanmar
ECCDI Ecosystem Conservation and Community Development Initiative
EcoDev Economically Progressive Ecosystem Development
EKTA Envir-Klean Technologists’ Association
ESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and
Pacific
ETM+ Enhanced Thematic Mapper
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FD Forest Department
FREDA Forests Resources Environment Development and Conservation Association
HID Human Index Development
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HRDP Human Resource Development Programme
IFRC International Federation of Red Cross
IOM International Organization for Migration
ISME International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems
ITTO International Tropical Timber Organization
IUCN International Union Conservation Nations
JAFTA Japan Forest Technical Association
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
MEALs Mangrove Empowerment and Livelihood Security for Environmental and
Biodiversity Conservation
MERN Mangroves and Environmental Rehabilitation Network
MoECF Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
MoF Ministry of Forestry
MSDN Mon-region Social Development Network
MSF Medecins San Frontieres
MSN Mangrove Survey Network
MTM Mettamon General Services Cooperative
NAG Network Activities Group
NEMI Natural Environment Management Inventory
NGOs Non-Government Organizations
PONJA Post –Nargis Joint Assessment
PSI Population Service International
RCA Rakhine Coastal Region Conservation Association
RECOFTC Regional Community Forestry Training Center
SCF Save the Children Fund
SDF Swanyee Development Foundation
SVSA Social Vision Services Association
TCG Tripartite Core Group
TM Thematic Mapper
UNCED United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
UNICEF United Nation Children Fund
WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
WGS World Geodetic Scale
WV World Vision
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature

 

1
CHAPTER I
GEOGRAPHICAL BASIC OF THE STUDY AREA
1.1 Physical Factors
Mangrove forests depend on geographical location, relief and drainage, climate, soil and underlying rocks, etc.
1.1.1 Location, Size, Shape, and Boundaries
The study area is latitudinally located between 15°42´ North and 16° 28´ North and longitudinally between 95 °15´ East and 95° 35´ East. It is one of the 26 townships in Ayeyarwady Region, Union of Myanmar. Bogalay Township is in the delta region; on the north by Kyaiklat Township, on the south by Bay of Bengal and sub-township of Ahmar, on the east by Pyapon Township, on the west by Mawlamyinekyun Township. This is almost flat region and most of forest area is tidal forest covered by mangrove species.
The total area of Bogalay Township is 2,250.41sq.km (868.87 square miles) representing 6.40 percent of the Ayeyarwady Region. From east to west 39.03 km (24.25miles) and north to south is about 57.66 km (35.83 miles).Some of the land in the study area where it meets the sea is the sand banks, islands, islets and peninsula but some regions are muddy. These areas are shallow parts of the sea. The shape of the study area resembles that of a triangular shape.
(Figure 1.1 a, b, c)
2
Figure 1.1(a) The Union of Myanmar and Ayeyarwady Region
Source: Myanmar Survey Department, Yangon
The Union of Myanmar Agriculture Atlas
3
Figure 1.1(b) Ayeyarwady Region and Bogalay Township
Source: Myanmar Survey Department, Yangon
The Union of Myanmar Agriculture Atlas
4
Figure 1.1(c) Location of Bogalay Township
Source: Myanmar Survey Department, Yangon
The Union of Myanmar Agriculture Atlas
5
1.1.2 Relief and Drainage
Bogalay Township is flat and has a delta of alluvial origin. Most areas are on the low level receiving tidal inundation. The physical features of Bogalay Township are basically higher in the north and gradually sloping southward to the sea and elevation of the town is about 2.5 m (8.20feet) above sea level. Relief is below 15.24 m (50 feet) in Bogalay Township. The mangrove forests are found in the tidal region and on sheltered muddy delta areas which is deposited and periodically inundated by the tides. Bogalay Township consists of many rivers and creeks. All rivers are distributaried by Ayeyarwady River and flows from north to south into the Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mottama.
The Ayeyarwady River flows from north to south forming the boundary between Laputta and Bogalay townships. It is the largest river flowing for 96.56km (60 miles) within Bogalay Township and useful for navigation. It is found in the western part of Bogalay Township.
Bogalay River flows from north to south and flows into the Andaman Sea (Kapali). It is formed by the confluence of Gonnyintan and Kyaikpi creeks. It is very useful for navigation.The Bogalay River when reaching at Kyunnyogyi branches into two channels, one forming Bogalay and the other, Kadonkani Creek. The two creeks converge again at the end of Meinmahla Island and flows on as the Bogalay River and it drains into the Andaman Sea (Kapali).
Thabetkyi Creek is a tributary of the Ayeyarwady River. It flows through the eastern part of Kyunnyogyi islands, located at the mouth of Ayeyarwady River.
Gonnyindon Creek flows from north-east to south -west, serving as a boundary between Kyaiklat and Bogalay townships. It joins the Kyaikpi Creek in the north-west of Bogalay Township.
6
Kunpaline Creek flows from north to south, as boundary between Kyailat and Pyapon with the Bogalay Township.
Kyaikpi Creek flows through northwest of Bogalay, and it is a boundary line between Mawlamyinekyun Township and Bogalay Township. Then it flows into Gonnyindan Creek.
Other Streams
There are many other streams flowing through Bogalay Township. Important streams are Maye Chaung, Khulan Chaung, Thumataik Chaung, Upper Nat Chaung, Lower Nat Chaung, Kaing Taw-We Chaung, Pyindeyekapyet Chaung, and Kumahauk Chaung. Some of these streams are important waterways in the township.
Islands
Important islands of Bogalay Township are Kyunnyogyi, Meinmahla, Byonmhwe and Sat islands.
Kyunnyogyi is formed in the Bogalay Creek and 9.66 km (6 miles) from south of Bogalay Town. The area of Kyunnyogyi is over 8,093.8 ha (20,000 acres) and can be used for cultivation. Kyunnyogyi Village Tract is located on this island.
Meinmahlakyun lies south of Kyunyogyi between Bogalay Creek and Kadonkani creek. It is known as Meinmhlakyun Reserved Forest.
Byounemhwe is located west of Meinmahla Island . It is 4.82 km (3 miles) long and is covered with mangrove forest.
SatKyun lies between Kyunnyogyi and Meinmahlakyun. It is a small island in Bogalay Township.
7
Figure 1.2 Relief and Drainage of Bogalay Township
Source: Myanmar Survey Department, Yangon
The Union of Myanmar Agriculture
8
1.1.3 Geology
Bogalay Township lies in the southern part of the delta basin. As the delta basin is almost completely covered with alluvial except at some localities where Mio-Pliocene beds cropped out, subsurface structure and basinal configuration are depicted by geophysical surveys and test wells, drilled by MOGE (Myanmar Oil and Gas Enterprise) in these areas.
The basinal area consists of two buried structural high with local deep sedimentary troughs NNE-SSW for distance of over 160.94 km (100 miles), may be seen remaining as basement high throughout sedimentation. A marked thinning of Mio-Pliocene sediments to the west and southwest towards this high is visible on some of the seismic sections.
Another high is Bogalay-Kyunnyogyi high which trend NNE through Payagon- Kyaiklat into Nyaungdon-Bawle areas. In these areas the sedimentary layers above the basement may be folded and faulted during and after the deposition, because local thinning and thickening of sediments indicate certain periods of lower uplift during deposition.
The folding and faulting in this region was influenced by the uplift of Arakan Yoma and Bago Yoma together with volcanic activity of Inner Volcanic Arc. The Northeast _Southwest major cross faults may be formed as a result of local adjustment of East _West movement. Geological Succession in Bogalay Township Areas are:
Newer Alluvium (Q2) (Holocene)
The newer alluvium is recent deposits laid down by Bogalay River and its tributaries. It occupies half of the township area and is mostly found at southern low-lying areas. Kadonkani Reserve Forest area, Meinmahlkyun, Pyindaye reserved forests are covered with these newer alluviums. They are made up of clay and silt and are structureless. These unconsolidated sediments are still building up of mangrove swamp, mudflat and sand flat of the present township area.
9
Older Alluvium (Q1) (Pleistocene)
The older alluvium is composed of gravels of various sizes and coarse sands. These deposits are laid down at Pleistocenecline in the trough, east of Kyunnyogyi-Bogalay high. Unlike the newer alluvium these sandy deposits occupy the higher ground. Therefore, they are found at raised village tracts of Padamyagone, Sabegone and Payarthonesu. In the gravels, the fragments of Quartz, feldspar and various rocks and also Mica and Pyrites are found. Generally the gravels and coarse sand are made up of 70 percent of Quartz, 15 percent of Feldspar and 10 percent of rock fragments. In between these sand layers, clay with lignite is also found.Due to the presence of large fragments in older alluvium or valley-filled deposits, many large spaces are present in between them. It makes a good aquifer for accumulation of water. But in this township area, the water is salty. So this aquifer cannot provide freshwater.
Irrawaddy Formation(Tm-Tpi) ) (Upper Pliocene)
The rock unit of Irrawaddy Formation is found at Bogalay- Kyunnyogyi high or ridge which bordered with Mawlamyinekyun Township in the west. The Irrawaddy Formation is made up of shale, clay, silt and sand stones with pebble units or conglomerate. The Irrawaddy sediments made up dominantly of massive, poorly consolidated current bedded sandstone, pebble sandstone and conglomerates were deposited under continent fluvialite condition. The silty clay member from the Lower Irrawaddies (near the base), and the silty clays or Danyingon clay at the top most of the Upper Irrawaddies are likely to have been deposited under lacustrine conditions. The Irrawaddy Formation was formed at the Bio Zone (1). This zone differs from the other three (zone 2, zone 3, and zone 4) by the complete absence of micro foraminifera. (U Kyi Maung ,1968) mentioned that the sediments were probably deposited in shallow water fluviatile environments and may be compared with the present day depositional condition in the delta. In the geology map the rock unit of Irrawaddy Formation is shown with the symbol Tm-Tpi. The age of Irrawaddy Formation is Upper Miocene to Pliocene. In Bogalay Township area, it is known that the shallow water fluviatile sedimentation was going on during the Upper Miocene to Pliocene times. But at the later Pleistocene times the township area was uplifted. The uplifting continues and present geomorphological conditions were reached during very recent times. (Win Win Khine, 1995)
10
Figure 1.3 Geology of Bogalay Township
Source: Myanmar Survey Department, Yangon
The Union of Myanmar Agriculture Atlas
11
1.1.4 Climate
There is no weather station at Bogalay and hence meteorological data of Maubin are used to analyze the climatic condition of the study area. The climate of the study area is controlled by the geographical location, relief and the periodical shifting of monsoon winds.The mean annual temperature of the Bogalay Township as recorded at Maubin Weather Station is 26.2ºC (79.16º F).It is coolest in January with 30.6°C (87.08º F) and the hottest month in April is 36.6 C˚ (97.88 F˚). The annual range of temperature is 6ºC (42.8ºF) (Table 1.1).
The notably low range is due to the moderating effect of the sea. The sharp variation in daily and monthly temperature may have profound adverse affect on the growth and survival of mangrove species.
The normal annual rainfall of the study area is 2,446.1mm (96.30 inches). Heavy and incessant rain occurs when monsoon is strong or when a cyclonic storm is formed in the Bay of Bengal. The total number of rainy days in a year was 121 days with high rainfall in June, July and August. Bogalay encountered its hottest days in March, April and May. The highest maximum temperature is 36.6º C (97.88 ºF) in April. The lowest value of relative humidity was recorded in the month of February, March and April.
The mean wind speed of 13.89 meters (45.5709 feet) per second was observed in July. Wind speed tends to change from season to season. However, when the cyclonic Nargis storm lashed the study area , the surface wind speed reached up to 200 km/h (149.13 miles/h) covering and a diameter of 240 km (149.13 miles).
When the storm passed over the study area in 2008, high waves and storm surge of 3.6m (11.81 feet) hit along the coastal area. Based on satellite images and ground surveys of forests a considerably large area of mangrove was destroyed. Strong waves enhance the spread of mangrove species and the growth rate. For optimum growth, mangroves require a certain amount of fresh water, even though these species are salt tolerant (hylophyte). Rain water regulates salt concentration in soil and plants, in addition to fresh water discharged by the stream. Reduction of salt content enhances the physiological function of the mangrove species.
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Table 1.1 Monthly rainfall and temperature (1979-2008) in Maubin Township
Month
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Aveg:/
Total
Rainfall
(mm)
0.1
4
10
38
283
471
533
533
335
167
66
6
2446.1
Maximum
Temperature (˚C)
30.6
33.3
35.1
36.6
33.9
30.5
29.7
29.9
30.6
31.6
31.4
29.9
31.93
Mean
Temperature (˚C)
22.6
24.6
26.7
29.7
29.0
26.9
26.1
26.2
26.3
26.5
26.2
23.6
26.2
Minimum
Temperature (˚C)
15.7
16.5
18.8
22.0
23.7
23.9
23.9
23.8
23.6
23.5
21.3
17.9
23.20
Source: Meteorology and Hydrology Department, Yangon
Figure 1.4 Monthly Rainfalls and Temperature (1979-2008)
Source: Based on Table 1.4
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1.1.5 Soils
Bogalay Township is located in the Ayeyarwady deltaic region, within the Tropical Monsoon Climatic Zone characterized by alternate hot and wet periods. As in other parts of Myanmar, the soil forming factors are climate, topography, drainage, natural vegetation, parent material, organizms and time. Soils in the Bogalay area are generally classified according to their development on the plain areas. There are three types of soil in the Bogalay area.
I. Beach Sand (Arenosols)
II. Types of Meadow Soils (Gleysols)
a) Meadow Alluvial Soils (Gleysol & Fluvic )
b) Meadow Gley Soils ( Eutric Gleysols)
c) Meadow Gley Saline Soils (Solonchaks)
d) Meadow Gley Swampy Soils (Humic Gleysols)
e) Brown Meadow Soils
f) Brown Meadow Clayey Soils
g) Brown Meadow Saline Soils
h) Light Brown Meadow
III. Mangrove Forest Soils ( Thionic Fluvisol)
I. Beach Sand (Arenosols)
Beach Sand is formed along the coast modified by strong wind, wave action and strong current. The soil texture is sand and fine sand. The study area has 3.94 sq.km (973.45 acres) or 0.18 per cent of the township. They are found on the southern part of the township. The landform of the study area is sand beach. Beach sand is almost entirely colonized by casuaria, coconut and other break wind tree species.
II. Types of Meadow Soils (Gleysol)
On the plains of the lowlands, sediments brought down by the rivers and streams are deposited resulting in meadow soil. Meadow Soils occur in association with meadow alluvial soils, meadow gley soils, meadow gley saline soils and meadow
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gley swampy soils. Meadow alluvial soils are found in the northeast, near the Bogalay Tfown and southwestern part, meadow gley saline soils in the southern and central part, and meadow gley swampy soils in the southeastern part of the Bogalay Township. Of the different types of meadow soils, meadow gley soil has the largest coverage. It is found in the southeastern part of the Bogalay Township.
These soils of meadow occur in poorly drained area where old alluvial parent materials were deposited. The colour is grey brown, with sandy loam, silty loam, silty clay, clay and clay loam texture. The pH values of meadow are 6-7.5 to 7-8.5. Meadow soils can be used as Le land for paddy cultivation. The total area of meadow soils is 669.32 km (165,452.7 acres) or 31.33 per cent of the township. (Table 1. 5)
Brown Meadow Soils, Brown Meadow Clay Soils and Brown Meadow Saline Soils are found extensively in the eastern, northeastern and central part of Bogalay Township; covering the larger area of about 656.27 km (162169.6 acres) or 30.72 per cent of the township‟s area. The thickness of these soils ranges with the degree of slopes. The colour of these soils is brown depending upon the parent materials and forest covers. The pH value is about 7-7.5 to 7-8.5. The soil textures are silty loam, silty clay loam, clay and clay loam.
Light Brown Meadow Soils occupy an area of 328.65 km (81210.5 acres) or 15.38 per cent of township‟s area. These soils occur on the northern part of the township where Gonnyindan Creek and Kyaikpi Creek converge and flow into the Bogalay River. The soil is composed of silty and clay loam with pH value of 6-6.5. The common species of meadow soils are Bruguniera cylindrical (Byu), Bruguiera conjugate (Byu-u-talone), Ceriops togal (Madama) , Casuaria equisetifolia (sea palm) ,Nypafruticans wurmb( Dani )and reeds.
III. Mangrove Forest Soils (Thionic Fluvisol)
At the estuaries and mouths of rivers and creeks, extensive areas of mangrove forests soils stretch on the flood plain low land. These soils occupy an area of 478.06 km (28797 acres) or 22.3 per cent of township‟s area. The pH value is 7-8.6 with silty clay and clay loam. Of the different types of soils, mangrove forest soil is the most dominant within the study area. The soil is wide-spread, but occurs more extensively in the southeastern part. The most common mangrove species that grow on this soil
15
type are Heritieera fomes (Kanazo), Excoecaria agallocha (Thayaw),Rhizophora species) (Byu),Xylocarpus moluccensis ( Kyana),Sonneratia apetala (Kantbala), Ceriops decandra (Madama ), Ceriops tagal (Madamahmaw). The soil can be used as paddy land after removing Kanazo forest. Thus, Kanazo forests are reducing gradually.
Table 1.2 Soil Legend of Bogalay Township (2010)
Source: Settlement and Land Records Department, Yangon
Soil Name
Slope %
pH
Texture
Land Form
Beach Sand
0-2
sand, fine sand
sand beach
Meadow Alluvial Soils
>3
6-7.5
sandy loam, silty loam
plain
Meadow Gley Soils
>3
6-7.5
clay ,clay loam
flood plain lowland
Meadow Gley Saline Soils
>3
7-8.5
silty clay,clay loam
flood plain lowland
Meadow Gley Swampy Soils
>3
7-7.5
silty clay,clay loam
flood plain lowland
Brown Meadow Soils
>3
7-7.5
silty loam, silty clay loam
plain
Brown Meadow Clayey Soils
>3
7-7.5
clay ,clay loam
plain
Brown Meadow Saline Soils
>3
7-8.5
clay ,clay loam
plain
Light Brown Meadow Soils
>3
6-6.5
silty ,clay loam
plain
Mangrove Forest Soils
>3
7-8.6
silty clay, clay loam
flood plain lowland
16
Table 1.3 Soil Classes of Bogalay Township (2010)
Sr.No
Soil Classes
Area(km)
Percent
1
Mangrove Forest Soils (MFS)
478.050909
22.38%
2
Meadow Gley Soils (MGS)
357.364226
16.73%
3
Light Brown Meadow Soils (LBMS)
328.650742
15.38%
4
Brown Meadow Saline Soils (BMSS)
270.546498
12.66%
5
Brown Meadow Clayey Soils (BMCS)
205.912239
9.64%
6
Brown Meadow Soils (BMS)
179.825245
8.42%
7
Meadow Alluvial Soils (MAS)
116.539163
5.46%
8
Meadow Gley Swampy Soils (MGSS)
104.752027
4.90%
9
Meadow Gley Saline Soils (MGSS)
90.672342
4.24%
10
Beach Sand (BS)
3.939448
0.18%
Total
2,136.252839
100.00%
Source: Settlement and Land Records Department, Yangon
17
Figure1.5 Soil Types of Bogalay Township
Source: Settlement and Land Records Department, Yangon
18
1.1.6 Tides, Salinity and Inundation
Mangroves are situated within the tidal limits on alluvial flats in the delta and on sheltered muddy coastal areas. They are stratified depending on how much the area is affected by the daily rise and fall of the tide. Tidal duration has similar effects on species distribution, vegetation structure and function of mangrove ecosystems. Mangrove forests influenced by diurnal tides differ in structure and fertility from mangrove affected by semi-diurnal tide and those affected by mixed tides (Aksormkoae, 1993). There is a daily tidal action (twice a day) and the tidal difference (high tide and low tide) is at least 2 metres (6 feet), in the Bogalay area. The duration of each rise or fall of tide lasts six hours, and takes place with each subsequent day. Daily tidal amplitudes of 2004 were collected at Byonemwe Island in the Bogalay Township, Ayeyarwady Delta.
Based on the tidal amplitudes, tidal levels were classified as Highest High Water Level (HHWL), Mean High Water Level (MHWL), Mean Water Level (MWL), Mean Low Water Level (MLWL), and Lowest Low Water Level (LLWL). Highest High Water Level (HHWL) is the highest water level at spring tide of every month. Mean High Water Level (MHWL) is the average high water level of spring and neap tides of every month. Mean low water level (MLWL) is the average low water level of spring and neap tides of every month. Lowest low water level (LLWL) is the lowest water level at spring tide of every month. Mean water level (MWL) is the mean water level between the HHWL and LLWL. The tidal amplitude varies through seasons in the study area. The HHWL, MHWL and MWL were 3.3m (10.82 feet), 2.8 m (9.19 feet) and 1.7 m (5.58 feet) respectively. MLWL and LLWL were 71 cm (2.30 feet) and 3 cm (0.1 feet) in this study area. Mangrove vegetation was found above the mean water level (MWL). No vegetation existed below the MWL. Therefore vertical distribution of mangroves occurs between 1.7 m (5.58 feet) and 3.3 m (10.82 feet). (Maung Maung Than, 2006)
Salinity
Tidal duration has a great influence on salinity changes in mangrove areas. Salinity of water is high during high tide and decreases at low tide. Moreover, water salinity varies during spring and neap tides. During spring tide, highly saline water intrudes further into the mangrove areas than that during the neap tides. Most of the
19
mangroves develop well in places where the mean salt concentration is high. On the other hand, few mangrove species grow in areas where the salinity is very low.
Salinity of river water is related to the distance from the sea, topography, tidal action and the rain. During the rainy season, river water has low salinity at the neap tide. With distance further away from the sea, salinity of river water became gradually lower and lower. In the rainy season, the salinity of river water was almost fresh or low with 0.2%◦ (part per thousand). However, the salinity in the dry season is quite high.
According to Maung Maung Than, based on the data collected from 2000 to 2004, it was found that salinity of the Bogalay area, varies from 0.2 to 2.4 %◦ (part per thousand) depending on tidal and seasonal conditions. In the rainy season, the salinity of river water was almost fresh or 0.2 %◦( Fig: 1.7 and Table 1.7).
Table 1.4 Monthly mean salinity of Byonemhwe island, Bogalay Area from
2000 to 2004
Source : MERN , Yangon (6.6.2010)
00.511.522.5JanFebMarch April May June July AugSeptOct Nov DecMonth Salinity (%.)Mean (ppt)
Figure 1.6 Monthly Mean Salinity of Byonemhwe Island,Bogalay Area from 2000 to
2004
Source: Based on Table 1.7
Month
Jan:
Feb:
March
April
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Aveg:
Mean (ppt)
1.2
1.55
1.85
2.4
2.35
0.9
0.2
0.15
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.8
1.33
20
Inundation
In this area, the ground levels are usually classified according to frequency of tidal inundation. Daily tidal action (twice a day) commonly occurs in this area. The duration of each rise and fall of tide lasts six hours. Basically, local people estimate daily tidal conditions by calculating days according to the Myanmar Lunar calendar. Mangrove forests have been categorized into various classes based on the frequency of inundation by tides (Watson, 1928). The classes include those inundated by all high, medium and normal high tides, and those inundated only by spring and equinoctial tides (Table1.5 ). Common tree species found in these inundation classes are listed in Table (1.7).
Table 1.5 Inundation classes of mangroves
Class
Flooded by
Height above chart datum(m)
Flooding frequency (times/month)
1
All high tides
0<2.4
56-62
2
Medium high tides
2.4<3.4
45-59
3
Normal high tides
3.4<4.0
20-45
4
Spring high tides
4.0<4.6
2-20
5
Equinoctial tides
4.6+
< 2
Source: Watson, 1928, Charter for Mangroves (2009)
00.511.522.533.5JanFebMarch April May June July AugSeptOct Nov DecMonth Height(m)LLTS (m)LLTN (m)HLTS(m)HLTN (m)
Figure 1.7 Monthly Mean Tidal Amplitude of the Study Area in 2004
Source: Based on Table 1.5
21
Table 1.6 Monthly Mean Tidal Amplitudes of the Study Area in 2004
Month
Jan
Feb
March
April
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Aveg
LLTS (m)
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.6
0.55
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
3.2
LLTN (m)
0.7
0.7
0.95
1.2
1.25
1.15
1.2
1.2
1.25
1.3
1.2
1
0.3
HLTS(m)
3.1
3
2.95
3.1
3.1
3.3
3.3
3.3
3.1
3.2
3.2
3.1
2.4
HLTN (m)
2.1
1.95
2
2.1
2.15
2.4
2.7
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.7
2.6
1.1
Source: MERN, Yangon (6.6.2010)
LLTS_ Lowest Low Tide Spring
LLTN- Lowest Low Tide Neap
HLTS- Highest Low Tide Spring
HLTN- Highest Low Tide Neap
Table 1.7 Common species found in the various inundation classes of mangroves
Inundation class
Common tree species
1.Deeply inundated by all high tides (seaward shores)
2. Inundated by all high tides
(banks of tidal creeks)
3.Inundated by normal high tides
(central mangroves)
4.Inundated only by occasional spring tides (back mangroves)
5. Inundated only by very rare equinoctial tides (riverine mangroves)
Avicennia alba (Thamekyettag), Avicennia marina(Thamephyu) and Sonneratia alba (Lamu)
Rhizophora mucronata (Byuchaehtauk Ahma)
Bruguiera gymnorhiz(Byueoakesaung), Bruguiera cylindrical(Byuekharkyatelein) ,Bruguiera parviflor(Nhanbyue),Bruguiera sexangula(Byueshwewar)and Rhizpphora apiculata (Byuechaehtaukphoe)
Excoecaria agallocha, Ficus microcarpa,
Instia bijuga,
Source: Watson 1928, Charter for Mangroves (2009)
MERN,Yangon (2009)
22
1.3 Human Factors
1.3.1 Historical Background
The Ayeyarwady mangrove was under the management of Myaungmya-Maubin District of the Western Forest Region until 1894. Meinmahlakyun was declared as the first mangrove reserve in the year 1895.
After the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, paddy fields were extended in the delta in order to export more rice from Myanmar. A large number of internal migrations took place, especially from Upper Myanmar to Lower Myanmar, to obtain land in the reclamation of the delta plains (Nay Win Oo, 2002).
The success of British efforts to transform Ayeyarwady delta wilderness into a productive agriculture zone is evidenced by the fact that, Lower Myanmar had become the world‟s greatest rice exporting area by the end of the 19th century.
Formerly, Bogalay Township was densely forested. However after the British occupation of Lower Myanmar, due to the extension of agricultural land chiefly for paddy cultivation, the area of forest land had decreased.
The Ayeyarwady mangrove was reconstituted as Delta Forest District in 1924 and managed systematically with the main object of supplying the Yangon‟s fuel need during the times of scarcity of kerosene. Firewood, charcoal and other forest products and the socio-economic stress for the rural population resulted in the denudation of the forests.
Moreover, much mangrove stands were used during the Second World War to satisfy military demands. The worst exploitation started in 1949, during the insurgent period from 1949 to 1972. Mangrove forests were still rich up to the end of the 1950s and all species were densely presented in the form of tall and large girth trees. In addition, agricultural land encroachment began to take place starting from the late 1970s. A reforestation programme by artificial means was introduced in 1975.
The programme covered the largest extension of mangrove forests in Bogalay Township. The total area of these mangrove forests in 1954 was 234,515 ha (579,493 acres) but decreased to 178,642 ha (441,429 acres) in 1984 (F.D, 2009).
23
After 30 years of overexploitation, rich mangrove forests had been transformed to low forest in the Ayeyarwady delta. Hence, 55,873 ha (138,064 acres) of the mangrove forests disappeared from the ground within three decades.
Feasibility study on mangrove forestation (1991-92) was introduced by UNDP/FAO and MoECF. The Forest Department responded for prohibition of the production of firewood and charcoal in 1993.
In 1996-99/ 1999-2001, environmentally sustainable food security and micro-income opportunity in the Ayeyarwady (Mangrove) Delta was planned by UNDP/FAO and MoECF. An annual planting programme was launched in degraded mangroves and abandoned paddy fields and a total of 15,240 ha (37,658.5 acres) have been established by the end of 2006 in three townships, namely Bogalay, Mawlamyaingkyun, and Laputta.(Planning and Statistics Division,FD,2006)
Unfortunately, the Ayeyarwady Delta was severely impacted by the cyclone Nargis, and the mangrove vegetation was damaged by strong winds and storm surge (associated flooding were devastating and the destructive winds caused further damage).
Based on satellite images and ground surveys of forest cover in the pre-and post-Nargis periods, 16,800 ha (41,513.3 acres) (30%) of natural forest were lost as a result of the cyclone. In addition, an estimated 21,000 ha (51,891.6 acres) of forest plantations were damaged (TCG, 2008 Post-Nargis Periodic Review 1).
Generally, the fundamental reason of depletion of forests in the Delta was the extended production of paddy by the British capitalists who occupied lower Myanmar in 1852. The basic factor of that development was the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869. The paddy sown area in lower Myanmar increased sharply from 26,400 ha (65,235.1 acres) to 2,631,200 ha (6,501,770 acres) between 1830 and 1900 (Win Maung, 1982). According to GIS section in Myanmar Forest Department, about 56% of the original mangroves was converted to agriculture and other land uses by activities of human beings from 1924 to 2001.
The Ayeyarwady Delta has changed its hardware as well as software sides; physical landscape and political, social, and economic systems changed throughout one and a half century period. Physical landscape has changed due to natural causes through erosion and salination, deterioration of marine ecosystem, and man-made
24
deforestation. On the software side, the Delta witnessed Myanmar‟s nationalist socialist system, and military authoritarian system and democracy system. It also saw several types of economic systems experimented with and practiced on feudal tribute system, plural economy, commercialization and export-oriented free market system, mixed-economy, centrally planned command/controlled economic system, and market-oriented transitional economy.
There was, to some extent, an improvement in living standard of the people in the Delta due to increase in market price of rice in the 1990s. In 1993-94, according to the official statistics, income in terms of total crop value per rural population, the Delta, including (Ayeyarwady Region, Yangon Region and Bago Region) outperformed other states and regions in Myanmar.
1.3.2 Demography
1.3.2.1 Population Growth
Generally, population growth in a region is due mainly to natural increase and migration. Since, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, internal migrations took place, especially from Upper Myanmar to Lower Myanmar.
These two factors responsible for population increase were affected by changes in the political, economic and social conditions of the region. After independence the population had increased in this region, due to its economy, security and defense etc.
In 1891, the population was 26,324 persons. According to the India Census issued in 1901, the township had 43,756 persons and the population increased to 17,432 persons. Thus, in the ten -year period the population growth rate was 5.2 percent at that time.
In 1911, the total population was 58,919 people with a growth rate in this ten - year period was 3 percent. (Table1.8). And then according to the India Population Report published in 1921, Bogalay Township had 84,896 persons, 25,977 persons greater than that of 1911. The average increase rate for the 10-year period was 3.7 percent.
25
According to the 1931 Census the total population was 97,589 persons with the average annual growth rate of 1.4 percent. According to the census 1921 and 1931 the increase in the township‟s population was due to natural growth. Population census could not be taken for over 30 years due to the World War II and political instability after the independence.
From 1931 to 1963 the population increased to 103,202 people and the growth rate was 2.1 percent at that time. On the basis of the 1963, the township‟s total population was 202, 832 persons and it increased to 230,623 persons in 1973. A fairly complete census was taken in 1973 for the whole country including Bogalay.
The number of increase during the period 1963-1973 was 27,791 persons and the average growth rate was 1.3 percent. According to the 1983 estimate, there were 294,370 persons living in the township. Thus, the number of increase during the 1973-1983 was 64,347 more people with the average growth rate of 0.2 percent per year. The total population of Bogalay in 1993 was 309,992 persons increased about 15,022 persons than that of 1983 with a growth rate of 2.8 percent.
The total population further increased to 439,210 in 2005 and the growth rate from 1993 to 2005 was 2.9 percent. The higher growth rate during the 1993-2005 was mainly as a result of prevalence of peace and security within the township, higher degree of accessibility, lower infant mortality rate due to medical progress and better health care and the development of agriculture and commerce. In 2009, the total population had decreased to 328,628 people with a growth rate of (-7) percent, due to the Cyclone Nargis in 2008.
The growth of population in Bogalay Township directly or indirectly affects the use of forest resources from the Bogalay mangrove area.In the case of Cyclone Nargis, the population of Bogalay Township had decreased to 328,628 in 2009.
This study area is composed of 71 village tracts around Meinmahla Reserved Forest, Kadonkani Reserved Forest and Pyindaye Reserved Forest. Some village tracts settle permanently in this mangrove reserve forest, while some settle at working season with the temporary huts in their fields. Bogalay mangrove area is potentially attractive to seasonal settlers because of the availability of vast areas of farm land for paddy field and garden.
26
Table 1.8 Population Growth of Bogalay Township
(1891,1901,1911,1921,1931,1963,1973,1983,1993,2005,2009,2010)
Source: Immigration and Manpower Department, Bogalay Township (14.5.2010)
1.3.2.2 Population Distribution
Population distribution depends on the physical factors, economic conditions, accessible transportation and the availability of irrigation water. Dense population occurs on the plains, lowlands, river-sides, transportation routes and in areas favorable for economic activities. Therefore, the spatial variation of population distribution in 71 village tracts is largely related to the types of land use and degree of accessibility. Thus, the highest concentration of people are found within the northern part of the township where a vast stretch of flat land suitable both for human settlement and
Years
Population
Population Increase (+)
Population Decrease (-)
Growth rate
(%)
1891
26,324
-
-
-
1901
43,756
17,432
-
5.2%
1911
58,919
15,163
-
3%
1921
84,896
25,977
-
3.7%
1931
97,589
12,693
-
1.4%
1963
202,832
103,202
-
2.1%
1973
230,623
27,791
-
1.3%
1983
294,370
64,347
-
0.2%
1993
309,992
15,022
-
2.8%
2005
439,210
129,218
-
2.9%
2009
328,628
-
-110582
- 7%
2010
328,738
110
-
0.0%
27
agriculture, easy access to transportation routes. The larger village tracts located in this section are Bogalay, Kadonkani and along Thabetkyi River.
The south and southeastern parts of township are sparsely populated especially where there are swampy dense forests. The population distribution by the number of wards and village tracts are presented in Table1.9. In 2009, people were highly concentrating in Myoma Ward No.7 and 6 village tracts (Hayman, Setsan, Dauntgyi, Ayeyar, Kadonkani and Kyeinchaunggyi with over 10,000 people each, of which Setsan Village Tract was the most populous with over 20,000 people. The population of this group shared about one-third of the total population. Based on the 1,000-population interval, the wards and village tracts with 2,000-2,999 people were the most common, including 3 wards ( Myoma ward 1, 3 and 5) and 27 village tracts (Lindine, Kansu(east), Panbesu, Seinheine, Thuzarwa, Mingon, Waigyi, Kwingyi, Supadaungkone, Pawein, Thazinngu, Thabyukone, Paiksala, Nyinaungwa, Padamyakone, Thitphyuchaung, Haymannyinaung, Thetkaiseik, Thaonehtut,Gayann, Petpye, Sakhnagyi, Thapyaykan, Khanaung, Chaunggyiwa and Phayarchaung. There were 12 village tracts with a population of 1,050-1,999 each, the least in the number of population. Generally more people are dwelling in village units in the rural area which account for 5.4 percent of the total population. The greater proportion of rural population is somehow related to the degradation and depletion of mangroves. Migration from other parts of the delta was common in the previous days in the delta, especially in reserved forest areas depending on availability of forest products and fishery resources. The migrants established villages in the reserved forests and carried out permanent agriculture. As people come from different parts, social cohesion is found to be low in some villages that are usually located in reserved forests. Post Cyclone Nargis, Bogalay Township had the highest total number of returnees.
28
Table 1.9 Population Distributions of Wards and Village Tracts in Bogalay
Township (14.5.2010)
Amount of Population
Wards
(Numbers)
Village
Tracts (Numbers)
Total Population
Less than 1050
Nil
Nil
Nil
1050-1999
Nil
12
17,858
2000-2999
3
27
75,811
3000-3999
1
19
70,583
4000-4999
1
4
23,017
5000-5999
1
Nil
5,723
6000-6999
1
1
6,118
7000-7999
Nil
1
7,419
8000-8999
1
Nil
8,445
9000-9999
Nil
Nil
-
10000-46973
1
7
112,345
Total
9
71
328,628
Source: Immigration and Manpower Department, Bogalay Township
29
Figure 1.9 Population Distribution of Bogalay Township
Source: Immigration and Manpower Department, Bogalay Township
30
1.3.2.3 Population Density
The population density depends upon the area of the increase in population. In 1891, the area of Bogalay Township was 2,799.78 sq.km (1081 sq.miles) and the density was 9 per square mile. By 1901, the area of township was 2,799.78 sq.km and the population increased to 43,756 and the density was 41 per square mile. Then in 1911 the area of Bogalay increased to 3,017.34 sq.km (1,165 sq.miles) and density was 51 p.s.m. The area was increased by 84 square miles compared to that of 1901.
In 1921, the area of Bogalay was 3,017.34 sq.km (1,165 sq.miles) while total population also increased and accordingly the density increased to 73 p.s.m. In 1931, the area of Bogalay decreased to 2,817.91 sq.km (1,088 sq. miles) while total population increased and the density increased to 90 p.s.m. During the pre-war years the population density of Bogalay was higher among other townships in Ayeyarwady Region. Bogalay area was large and due to its favourable location and its good economy, the number of population was higher compared to other townships in Ayeyarwady Region.
After independence the area of the township increased to 2,896. 69 sq.km
(1,118.42 sq.miles) and the total population also increased. In 1960s, there was more security within the township and the economic condition had also improved as a consequence of immigration into the township.
In 1973, the total population was 230,623 and it increased to over 294,370 in 1983, and the density had increased from 206 p.s.m. to 263 p.s.m. Then in 1993, the area of Bogalay was 2,896.69 sq.km (1,118.42 sq.miles) and density was 263 p.s.m. In 2005, the area of Bogalay was also 2,896.69 sq.km (1,118. 42 sq.miles) , the population increased to 309,992 with a density of 277 per square mile. This was due to reclamation of cultivable waste and migration.
In 2009, the area of Bogalay Township decreased to 2,550.36 sq.km (868.87 sq.miles ) while the density increased 323 per square mile. and the population was 328,628. The area was decreased by 646.0212 sq.km (249.55 sq.miles) compared to that of 1993 (Table 1.10).
By the end of 2009, Bogalay Township was reconstituted. There are 19 village tracts that have about 100-200 persons each per square mile and these village tracts include Kangyi , Kalarohnpinsu, Kansu, Sabekone, Weigyi, Kwingyi,
31
Ywarthit, Nyinaungchaungphyar, Kyunnyo, Padamyakone, Thitphyuchaung, Haymannyinaung, Thetkaiseik, Thonehtut, Gayann, Byusakhan, Kamarkalu, Thapyaykan and Chaunggyiwa.
Then, 26 village tracts that have 200-400 persons each per square mile are Lindine, Yokesaing, Hlwataung, Panbesu, Phinmakone, Seinheine, Kyinsulyonephar, Tonehle, Hinesi, Thakanwa, Supadaungkone, Phoeyaung, Pawein, Thazinngu, Paiksala, Malawt, Myatheinthan, Hayman, Phoedikwe, Phayarthonesu, Ngapichaung, Petpye, Sakhangyi, Paungde, Kwinpin ,Ngayokekaung, Thuzarwa, Kwinbonegyi, Nyinaungwa, Ayeyar ,Thittochaung,Phoelay, Pharyarchaung, Kansu, Magu and Kadonkani. They are located near the Bogalay Myoma centre and northern part of the township Table 1.11.
The concentration of population in the town of Bogalay Myoma was due to its security, good social and economic conditions, and favorable location, at the junction of water transport and communication lines.
Population density and population distribution are somehow inter-related. On plains, population concentration is higher and as a consequence the density also high. On swampy lands and reserved forested regions, population concentration is rather low, and accordingly the density of population is low.
The most populated rural areas are village tracts near the town where distribution of population is high. The density of these village tracts averages about 500-1500 p.s.m and these village tracts include Mayetywathit, Aukhleseik, Dauntgyi, Myinkakone Thabyukone, Tharpaung, Setsan and Ayeyar. The moderately populated village tracts are concentrated on the northern part of Bogalay Township. (Figure 1.10 & 1.11)
32
Figure: 1.10 Population Density of Bogalay Township
Source: Immigration and Manpower Department, Bogalay Township( 2010)
Settlement and Land Records Department, Yangon, Myanmar
33
Figure 1.11 Village Tracts of Bogalay Township
Source: Settlement and Land Records Department, Yangon, Myanmar
34
The sparsely populated village tracts of the southern and southeastern parts have low population density with only about 25 to 80 p.s.m and being occupied by reserved forest.
Table 1.10 Population Density of Bogalay Township in (14.5.2010)
(1891,1901,1911,1921,1931,1963,1973,1983,1993,2005,2009,2010)
Source: Census of India, Part II, 1931
Immigration and Manpower Department, Bogalay Township (14.5.2010)
Year
Area
(sq-km )
Township
Population
Density of population
(sq-km)
1891
2,799.78
26,324
9
1901
2,799.78
43,756
16
1911
3,017.34
58,919
20
1921
3,017.34
84,896
28
1931
2,817.91
97,589
34
1963
2,896.69
200,791
69
1973
2,896.69
230,623
80
1983
2,896.69
294,370
102
1993
2,896.69
309,992
107
2005
2,896.69
439,210
152
2009
2,250.36
328,628
146
2010
2,250.36
328,738
146
35
Table 1. 11 Population Densities of Bogalay Myoma and Village Tracts in (2010)
Sr.No
Bogalay and Village Tracts
Population
Area (sq.km)
Population Density
Bogalay Town
46,973
9.93
4,731
1
Myoma Ward 1.
2,739
2
Myoma Ward 2.
3,875
3
Myoma Ward 3.
2,830
4
Myoma Ward 4
4,360
5
Myoma Ward 5.
2,020
6
Myoma Ward 6.
8,445
7
Myoma Ward 7.
10,680
8
Myoma Ward 8.
6,301
9
Myoma Ward 9.
5,723
Village Tracts
1
Lindine
2,347
9.57
245.32
2
Kansu (east)
2,123
5.27
402.7
3
Yokesaing
1,050
5.08
206.62
4
Kangyi
1,268
6.51
194.62
5
Mayetywathit
4,622
9.16
504.2
6
Kwanpin
1,422
3.8
374.28
7
Hlwataung
1,787
6.63
269.34
8
Panbesu
2,390
10.35
230.77
9
Pyinmakone
1,650
6.1
267.81
10
Ngayokekaung
3,486
9.4
370.66
11
Aukhleseik
3,219
5.51
584.61
12
Seinheine
2,443
8.67
281.85
13
Thuzarwa
2,658
7.19
369.94
14
Kyinsukyonephar
1,684
6.93
243.06
15
Kwinbonegyi
1,729
5.32
324.49
36
Table 1.11 (Cont’d)
Sr.No
Bogalay and Village Tracts
Population
Area (sq.km)
Population Density
16
Tonehle
1,079
4.04
266.8
17
Kalarohnpinsu
1,451
9.37
154.72
18
Kansu(w)
2,321
12.2
190.01
19
Myinkakone
7,419
11.65
636.31
20
Mingon
2,032
7.1
283.31
21
Thanlike
3,311
11.58
285.75
22
Hinesi
3,607
13.65
264.24
23
Thakanwa
3,269
14.22
229.9
24
Sabekone
3,180
20.06
158.52
25
Waigyi
2,222
19.28
115.22
26
Kwingyi
2,980
17.28
172.47
27
Supadaungkone
2,626
10.93
240.36
28
Phoeyaung
3,806
18.41
206.71
29
Ywarthit
1,735
8.74
198.49
30
Pawein
2,518
10.06
250.26
31
Thazinngu
2,831
11.88
238.39
32
Thabyukone
2,898
3.76
770.87
33
Paiksala
2,494
10.3
242.12
34
Nyinaungchaungphyar
1,868
11.53
162
35
Tharpaung
4,874
4.51
1,079.53
36
Nyinaungwa
2,811
7.94
353.61
37
Malawt
3,966
19.47
203.7
38
Ayeywar
4,381
14.27
307.07
39
Magu
11,044
22.82
483.98
40
Kyunnyo
6,118
46.4
131.84
41
Padamyakone
2,582
19.93
129.54
42
Myatheintan
3,326
15.88
209.47
43
Thittochaung
3,268
8.86
368.99
37
Table 1.11 (Cont’d)
Sr.No
Bogalay and Village Tracts
Population
Area (sq.km)
Population Density
44
Hayman
12,259
44.11
277.86
45
Phoedikwe
2,947
12.5
235.8
46
Thitphyuchaung
3,268
22.05
143.67
47
Haymannyinaung
2,383
15.09
157.87
48
Phayarthonesu
3,984
14.81
269.08
49
Ngapichaung
4,780
18.54
257.81
50
Phoelay
3,017
8.59
351.34
51
Thetkaiseik
2,252
12.31
182.91
52
Thonehtut
2,213
11.2
197.54
53
Thazinkone
3,124
30.08
103.86
54
Gayann
2,981
27.8
107.22
55
Pyinboegyi
1,135
25.31
44.83
56
Petpye
2,553
9.45
270.06
57
Setsan
22,619
19.23
1,176.23
58
Byusakan
3,132
23.99
130.52
59
Kamakalu
3,820
23.87
160.03
60
Sakhangyi
2,790
11.16
250.08
61
Thapyaykan
2,898
16.67
173.77
62
Paungde
3,961
13.54
292.61
63
Nhapyayma
3,660
41.61
87.96
64
Dauntgyi
17,060
32.68
522.01
65
Khanaung
2,490
45.29
54.97
66
Chaunggyiwa
2,182
16.66
130.97
67
Ayeyar
10,260
8.93
1,147.84
68
Kadonkani
17,129
37.87
452.28
69
Phayarchaung
2,257
6.89
327.36
70
Kyeinchaunggyi
11,294
446.68
25.28
71
Kyuntharyar
3,277
79.38
41.28
Total
328,738
2378.44
Source: Immigration and Manpower Department, Bogalay Township (May, 2010)
Myanmar Survey Department, Yangon
Settlement and Land Records Department, Yangon, Myanmar
38
Post- Nargis male population exceeded female population at rural. The number of females decreased the great loss of lives due to cyclone.Liverate of male was higher compared to female and also due to grip onto the branches and stems of Avicennia (Thamae).
Table 1.12 The Population of Bogalay Township by Gender Ratio (2009)
Urban and Rural
House
Household
Population
Gender Ratio
Male
Female
Bogalay Town
8635
9579
22995
25536
90
Village Tracts
60943
60943
144083
141687
101
Total
69578
70522
167078
167223
Source: Immigation and Manpower Department ,Bogalay Township (May,2009)
1.2 Institutional Factors
The various aspects of group, collective, or social action that influence and control individual behaviour may be described as institutions or as institutional factors. The government and its related departments are the dominant institutions that can influence the socio-economic features of the study area. Lower Myanmar Paddy Development Project I and Project II have some effect on the cultivation of the study area. The area that covers in these projects is Pyapon, Bogalay, Wakema, Laputta and Ngaputaw townships. The fundamental objective of the project is to prevent 36,867.66 hectares (91,100 acres) of land from being invaded by the salty seawater and to expel the excess water in the rainy season through drains. As implementation of Daukkyikyun Project, 3 sluice gate drains for removing excess water and embankment have been constructed. The village tracts of Bogalay Township included in Paddy II Project is Ngapyayma, Thabyaykan, Setsan, Khanaung, Byusakhan, Paungde, Daukkyi, Kamarkalu and PetpyVillage Tracts.e The improved farmland area as a result of Paddy II Project is 8,698.1 hectares (21,493 acres).(Plate 1.1)
(a)
39
Plate 1.1(a) Paddy land at Hayman Village, Bogalay Township
Plate 1.1(b) Bogalay-Ahmar Road passing through Pyindaye Reserved Forest
Plate (c) Bogalay-Tharpaung Bridge at Bogalay Town
Source: Photographs taken by researcher (January, 2013)
40
1.4 Social Factors
1.4.1 Education
Education is an important indicator of social condition because knowledge and ideas depend on the education level of people. The government planned to build Institutions of both higher and basic schools for regional development after 1988.
Level of education is related to the economy and intellectual knowledge of the people. In Bogalay Township education level can be classified as monastic, pre-primary, Basic Primary, Basic Middle, Basic High, graduate and illiterate levels. After the Cyclone Nargis, monastic education has become more significant in most villages. The constructing of storm shelter at the coastal villages and the changing condition of monasteries as refuge for the orphans after the storm, most monasteries have become the leading centre of basic education. It is observed that more pre-primary schools have been opened in most large villages in the recent years. A greater proportion of the older age-group is of monastic product in education level, while the young and the adult have had the formal school education of primary or middle or high or graduate level. The government as well as foreign non-governmental organizations are providing support as first priority to upgrade the education level of the township.Level of education reflects the distribution pattern of schools, accessibility and economic condition.
Number of Schools
In 1983-84, Bogalay Township had 4 BEHS, 7 BEMS, 176 BEPS, 2 affiliated high schools, 22 affiliated middle schools and 57 post-primary schools. In 2012 there are 5 BEHS, 28 BEMS, 438 BEPS, 6 affiliated high schools, 15 affiliated middle schools and 18 monastic schools. In addition, all the monasteries teach the children of the rural dwellers how to read and write together with the teachings of Buddha.
Bogalay Teachers Training School was opened in 1970-71 and Training School of Fishery Industry at Kadonkani, by Fishery Department of Ayeyarwady Region on 16thAugust 1982. After the Cyclone Nargis, UNICEF, SDC and WV, under the guidance of the Ministry of Education, provided and with the sole objective of rapid action for post-emergency restoration of early learning and education for children for the affected townships including Bogalay. The strategy of the undertaking was that the proposed activities would be implemented based on information gathered
41
from initial assessments, under the coordination and leadership of the Ministry of Education, to ensure that acceptable conditions were in place for children to return to school. The actions would benefit an estimated 300,000 children affected by the cyclone in a first phase. While the initial assessments focused on the primary education sub-sector, the subsequent early recovery needs assessment would assess the education sector, including middle and high schools, as a basis for more recovery planning. It is likely that the general education level of the country will improve in the near future, as the government has raised the budget for education sector since 2012-13 financial year and the relaxation of certain sanctions imposed over Myanmar by several developed countries.
Plate : 1.2 (a) Multiple Uses Construction at Daminnaung Village,
Bogalay Township
42
Plate : 1.2 (b) Multiple Uses Construction (now openning primary school)
at Daminnaung Village, Bogalay Township
Plate : 1.2 (c) Storm Shelter at Shwe Pyi Aye Village, Bogalay Township
Source: Photographs taken by researcher (Jaunuary, 2013)
43
Plate 1.3 (a) Monastic School at Bogalay Town, Bogalay Township
Plate 1.3 (b) Bogalay Education College at Bogalay Town, Bogalay Township
Source: Photographs taken by researcher (January, 2013)
44
1.4.2 Health Condition
Health knowledge of a population depends on level of education, economic development, transportation and communication, health centres and health staff as well as health related facilities.
The majority of rural population still depends largely on indigenous medicines. Bogalay Township has one township hospital, two station hospitals, 7 rural health centres, 13 maternal and child welfare centres, 4 co-operative clinics, over 30 private clinics, 4 dental care clinics and 3 indigenous medicinal clinics. However, the number of staff is small and health services are being undertaken by 10 doctors, 5 chief staff, 2 senior nursing staff, 15 ordinary nursing staff, 3 compounders, 1 assistant health lady, 2 midwives, 2 staff nurses, one laboratory technician and several general workers. Rural Health Centres are organized under the Township Development Committee at every village tracts after Cyclone Nargis. They are responsible for health education, control of communicable diseases environmental sanitation regular field works and immunization activities are being carried out.
These show that the existing number of health service personnel cannot give treatment effectively to the patients. The main tasks of Health centres are prevention of epidemic diseases and infectious diseases, provision of health knowledge, taking care of maternal and child health, giving treatment to the patients related to natural disaster and delivering of health talk to the local inhabitants. The most common diseases among the inhabitants are diahorrea and dysentery. Most latrines are located by the river banks and those who use the stream water often contract diseases related to water pollution. After the storm disaster, a number of medical groups give health support, including MSF(Switzerland), UNICEF,UNOP, Kwekapaw Kayin Association, Bogalay Township Association (Local NGO), HRDP (Local NGO),WHO, SCF(UK), WV,INEP, Myanmar Red Cross Society , IFRC,PSI,AMI, Maternal and Child Health Association in coordination with the Ministry of Health.
These groups focused on the reduction of morbidity of the affected population of Cyclone Nargis and served as the reinforcement of the capacity of the health system to deliver essential services to the affected population and to increase access to health care particularly for those with specific vulnerability.
(Source: Myanmar Tropical Cyclone Nargis Flash Appeal, 2008)
45
Plate: 1.4 (a) Bogalay Hospital,Bogalay Town
Plate 1.4 (b) Eye Clinic, Bogalay Town
Plate 1.4 (c) TB and Malaria Clinic,Bogalay Town
Source: Photographs taken by researcher (2013)
46
1.4.3 Occupation
The occupation in the urban area is fairly diverse, whereas most rural dwellers are engaged in the primary production activities. The majorities are farmers and fishermen, and others are mud-crab collectors, livestock breeders, gardeners (fruit trees, flowers and nipa), firewood cutters, traders and casual labourers.
In the pre-Nargis period, 61.84 percent of the total workforce was engaged in agriculture, livestock breeding, forestry, fishery and hunting, 36.71 percent in manufacturing production and related work, transport equipment operation, and 1.45 percent in professional work, and technical and related works.
It was the harvesting time of summer paddy when the Cyclone Nargis struck the area and thus all the crops were destroyed together with the seeds kept for another season, agricultural implements and fishing tools. Therefore, the rural inhabitants had to face serious hardship in the first year after the Nargis. In the second year, the area was widely flooded by the salty seawater. Due to the destruction of habitat, the number of mouse dramatically proliferated and destroyed the paddy land together with wild pigs, causing sharp decrease in the production.
In November,2011, field surveys were conducted in Ngayokekaung, Pyinmagone., Kangyi and Yokesaing village tracts in the northern part, Tharbaung, Pebachaung, Nyinaungwa, Malawt, Ayeywa village tracts in the west, Hayman, Setsan, Patpyae, Mayan, Pyinbogyi, Byasakhan, Paungde, Ngapyayma, Khanaung and Daukkyi village tracts in the eastern and southeastern parts of the township. The each farmer of the northern part own 1-5 acres of farmland , whereas that of the southern part adjoined with Pyindaye Reserve own from one acre to 100- 150 acres. The yield per acre of monsoon paddy is 60-65 baskets and of summer paddy 100 baskets per acre. The increasing market demand of „Pawsan and Baegyar‟ makes the farmers less dependent on the mangrove forest. There has been a serious conflict between the farmers who want to extend their paddy land over the mangrove land area and those who are involved in reforestation of the mangroves. With the assistance of NGOs, small chicks, pigs and fingerlings are given to landless random workers to rise at manageable scale. Such contribution, to some extent, reduces the heavy dependence of the local inhabitants on the mangrove forests. The mitigation of cutting mangroves for fuelwood also includes the change of cooking habit from using firewoods and charcoal to using paddy-husks. Model stoves are also given to the low-income families by the NGOs. Some households use the dry tree branches of trees and
47
coconut frond obtained within the residential compound for cooking. This somehow indicates that the use of mangrove species as firewood has been declining. In additions the electricity supply is more regular in the urban area and thus the use of charcoal has also been decreasing. The growing awareness of the necessity of mangrove forests among the local inhabitants is largely due to the lesson given by the Cyclone Nargis.
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e) (f)
Plate 1.5 (a, b, c, d, e ,f) Assistance of NGOs (pigs, chicken, fish larva,garden and model stoves) northern part of Pyindaye group
Source: MSN Office and taken by researcher (2010)
48
1.5 Cultural Factors
1.5.1 Ethnic Groups and Religion
There are ten ethnic groups within Bogalay Township in 2010.These ethnic groups are: Bamar, Kayin, Rakhine, Kachin, Chin, Mon, Shan, Indian and Chinese. There is a slight variation in the number of ethnic groups of Bogalay Township between 1973 and 2010. There was a significant decrease for Shan, Kayar, Indian and Chinese. The decrease of Indians and Chinese was mainly due to emigration from rural areas to large cities. After Cyclone Nargis, there was no significant change in the total number of Bamars and Kayin ethnic group in Bogalay area. The number of Kayins in rural area was also higher than that of urban area. The distribution pattern of Bamar and Kayin ethnic groups formed the highest percentage of ethnic population within Bogalay area. Kayin ethnic group is found in many village tracts in Bogalay Township. (Table 1.15)
Table 1.15 Percentages of Ethnic Groups in Bogalay Township (2011)
Source: Immigration and Man Power Department, Bogalay Township
Ethnic Groups
Township
Persons
Percent
Bamar
312,801
95.15
Kayin
14,141
4.3
Rakhine
1,492
0.45
Kachin
15
0.0045
Chin
14
0.0045
Mon
2
-
Shan
1
-
Kayar
-
-
Indian
120
0.036
Chinese
152
0.046
Total
328,738
100
49
In post Nargis, gender unbalance in the affected village is very obvious because numbers of women passed away in the cyclone were more than that of men. Due to this reason, gender structure changed, to some extent. Structure of age class which is very important in stability of socio-economic condition has been altered.
Religion
Religion, which largely influences the human landscape and mode of life, is also one of the most significant aspects of population composition. It is no wonder that the majority of the people in the study area are Buddhists and Christian, Hindu and Islams are also found in small numbers. Some villagers have belief in forest spirits. There are a few typical animists and small nat-shrines are found particularly in some villages. (In order to control extensive cutting of trees, local people has created strong discourse of nat (spirit) to spread fear about punishment that will be given by the forest spirit in case of cutting trees beyond their traditional norm. There are popular gossips among the local people about someone punished by the forests spirit such as eaten by a crocodile or spiritual tiger, stricken by a thunder, or dying in the storm when travelling by boat.) The 1973 Census of Bogalay Township indicated that there were 219,258 Buddhists or 95.1 percent of the total population .The number of Christians was 9,567 or 4.1 percent of the total population. There were 1,329 Islams, 0.6 percent of the total population and 380 Hindus and 77 Animists. In 2010, there were 305,901 Buddhists or 93.1 percent of the total population. The others are 179, 41 Christans or 5.45 percent of the total population, 2,879 Islams or 1 percent of the total population and 2017 Hindus or .6 percent of the total population. (Table 1. 16 and Plate 1.6 )
50
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
Plate 1.6 (a) Aung Setkyar Pagoda at Bogalay Myoma
(b) Hindu Temple
(d) U Shingyi Nat and Hold a ceremony to propitiate nats
Source: Photograph taken by Researcher (January,2013)
51
Table 1.16 Religions of study area in 2010
Religions
Population
Percentage of
Total (%)
Buddhists
305,901
93.10
Christians
17,941
5.43
Islams
2,879
0.87
Hindus
2,017
0.60
Total
328,738
100%
Source: Immigration and Manpower Department, Bogalay (14.5.2010)
1.6 Economic Factors
Economic Activities: General Land Use
The area of Bogalay Township is 225,041 ha (556,076.8 acres) and it is classified as agricultural land, forestland, cultivable waste land and uncultivable land. In 2010-11, 90,280.86 hectares (223,084 acres) of land were used for agriculture which represented about 40 percent of the total area of the township. Much of the agricultural land is used primarily for growing paddy. As a result, Bogalay stands as one of the leading producers of paddy not only in the Ayeyarwady Region, but also among the townships of the country. The forestland occupies 102,044.92 hectares (252,153 acres) of land sharing 45.35 percent of the township area. The gradual extension of farmland has resulted in the extremely contraction of cultivable waste land, with only 21.85 hectares (54 acres) in 2010-11. The area occupied by uncultivable land in that year was 33,082.15 hectares or 1,746 acres (3.21%) which included pasture land, road land, embankment land, streams and underwater lands, inn and lakes land, industrial land, settlement land, religious land and cemetery land.
The major crops grown within Bogalay Township are cereals, oil-seed crops, garden crops, vegetables and pulses.
Among the cereal crops grown in the study area, paddy is for the most dominant with the sown area of 82,725.21 hectares (204,414 acres) or 36.76 percent of the total occupied area in 1982-83, 81708.6 ha (210,902 acres) or 37.92 percent in 1987-88 94,880.61 ha (234,450 acres) or 42.16 percent in 1992-93 and 125,745.85 ha (310,718 acres) or 55.87 percent of the total occupied area of the township. The
52
increase in the net sown area was due to the encouragement of the government, the increased population and heavy dependence on agriculture. The yield per acre of paddy in 2010-11 was 67.02 baskets, compared with 70 baskets for Ayeyarwady Region. The paddy grown in Bogalay Township is Pawsan (Baegyar), Pawsangyi. Pawsanyin, Myeedon, Hnankar, Manawthukha, Yatanatoe, Thihtatyin, Shwemyanmar, Sinnweyin, Sinthykha, Yananaraung, Sinthwelatt, Yesinlonethwe and sticky rice (Kyauknyin) of which Pawsan (Baegyar) is widely grown.
All the 71 village tracts of the township has more or less „Le‟ (paddy) land, of which the village tracts with relatively large area fo „Le‟land are Hayman, Setsan, Magu,Kyunnyo, Myatheindan, Thazingone and Daukkyi Village Tracts. These Village Tracts are also high in the sown areas of other crops.
Oil-seed Crops
The oil-seed crops grown in Bogalay Township are sunflower, groundnut and sesame. In 1982-83, the sown area of sesame was 6,297.04 hectares (15,560 acres), sunflower 89.44 hectares (221 acres) and groundnut 6.88 hectares (17 acres). Flower sesame was grown on test in that year. In 1994-95, the sown area of sesame declined to 607.04 hectares (1,500 acres), whereas the sown area of sunflower increased to 1,335.5 hectares (3,300 acres) and groundnut to 29.14 hectares (72 acres). The area under sesame further decreased to 134.35 hectares (332 acres), sunflower to 712.26 hectares (1,760 acres) in 2010-11, but the sown area of groundnut increased to 166.73 hectares (412 acres). The area under sesamum in that year was 10.12 hectares (25 acres).
In 2012, the targeted sown area of oil-seed crops for Bogalay Township is 1,800 hectares (4,448 acres), and 1,010.93hectares (2,498 acres) have been cultivated up till now. In the early years of the study period Hnangyi was grown, but‟ Hanlyin” in the later years. Both wet season groundnut and cool dry season groundnut are grown.Generally the sown area as well as the production of oil-seed crops have been declining, mainly due to the extension of pulses cultivation in the recent years.
53
Pulses
The targeted sown area of pulses in 2011-12 was 1,871.71 hectares (4,625 acres), including 454.47 hectares (1,123 acres) of black gram, 509.91 hectares (1,260 acres) of green gram, 296.24 hectares (732 acres) of cow pea (bocate) and 105.63 hectares (261acres) of cow pea (pelun).The total sown area of pulses ranks second next to paddy among the different crops grown in Bogalay Township.
Coconut
As the southern rim of the township is fronted by the sea, the village tracts along the coastal area are favourable for growing coconut. About 6 to 100 coconut trees are planted on an acre of land which yields about 2,000 coconuts. Coconut plantations are found in some village tracts, 809.39 hectares (2,000 acres) in Kadonkani, 121.41 hectares (300 acres) in Ayer, 113.31 hectares (280 acres) in Thitphyuchaung and 97.13 hectares (240 acres) in Tepinseik.
Garden Crops
In 1982-83, the study area had 283.29 hectares (700 acres) of garden land including 113.72 hectares (281 acres) of fruit garden land and 169.57 hectares (418.83 acres) of home fruit garden land. The garden crops include mango, lime, lemon, pomelo, pineapple, danyin, guava and jack fruit, of which mango occupies the largest area. In 2010-11, the garden land area increased to 305.54 hectares (755 acres).
Other Crops
Other economically important crops grown within the study area are dhani, betal nut, banana, vegetables, betal vine, and vegetables . The growing of dhani has been extended primarily to protect farmland from being invaded by salty seawater. It is confined to along the banks of tidal creeks within upper tidal limit. As dhani thrives in salty water, the township produces best quality of dhani sheets for roofing. One acre of dhani yield 4,000-5,000 sheets in average. The village tracts that have large dhani land are Hayman (283.29 hectares or 700 acres), Tepinseik ( 303.52 hectares or 750 acres), Thazingone (161.8 hectares or 400 acres),Ahmar (242.8 hectares or 600
54
acres) , and Daukkyi (161.88 hectares or 400 acres).All village tracts have more or less dhani land.
Betalnut is mostly grown in Ahmar (121.41 hectares or 300 acres), Hayman (101.17 hectares or 250 acres), Kadonkani (80.93 hectares or 200 acres), and Ayar (60.70 hectares or 150 acres). The sown areas in other village tracts are very limited. Some grow separately on garden land while others grow in their house compounds.
The area under banana of Bogalay Township represents about 6 percent of the Ayeyarwady Region‟s total. Every village tract grows banana, but the area is fairly large in Ahmar (60.70 hectares or 150 acres), Kadonkani (51.80 hectares or 128 acres), and Thitphyuchaung (41.28 hectares or 102 acres).
The area under vegetables fluctuates greatly. In 2010-11, the township had 180.08 hectares (445 acres) of vegetable sown area, including 144.85 hectares (358 acres) of chillies.Other important vegetables are tomato, brangal and betal leave. Most households grow vegetables for home consumption and others for livelihood or extra income.
Fishery
Bogalay Township, being part of the lower Ayeyarwady deltaic region, is replete with creeks, inns and lakes which are favourable habitats for fish, prawn and other aquatic animals. Therefore, fishery is the secondmost important economic activity of the study area. As it is fronted by the sea, off-shore fishery is also important.
The freshwater fishery includes fish culture, inn fishery, bon fishery and yaypaw-yayhlyan fishery. Fish culture has become more widespread after storm Nargis.
There are about 100 private-owned inns and inn fishery operated under license includes prawn inns.
Common (Bon) fishery is carried out with fishing instruments in areas allowed through tender system, while some catch fish in water bodies belong to the community, known as yaypaw-yayhlyan. The fish and prawns are distributed in fresh
55
condition or dried form. Fresh fish and prawns are sold near the inn area or in the town or are sent to Yangon.
During the Cyclone Nargis a number of fishermen were killed and fishing implements were destroyed. Now it has become normal condition, but the fish catch become low due to the destruction of mangrove forests.
Off-shore fishery is carried out by the private, particularly by those who are residing in the coastal villages. The fish catch from the offshore fishery outweighs that of freshwater fishery. Apart from fresh fish and prawn, fish or shrimp paste, dried fish, dried prawn and fish sauce are sent to Yangon Region.
Crocodile breeding began in 1978-79 in Bogalay Township, with the sole objective of earning foreign currency through the export of crocodile skin and of attracting foreign tourists.
Industry
The industrial sector of the study area is not well developed yet and it has no industrial zone. The existing ones are agro-based, including mostly processing the agricultural produces. Among them rice-mills, oil- mills and saw-mills are the most common. Most mills and factories are located in Kadonkani and Ayar village tracts. Others are ice factory, workshop, cheroot rolling industry, furniture, blacksmith, goldsmith and dhani sheets making industry. Most of these industries are of small-scale run by family members or with a few workers.
56
(a)
(b)
Plate: 1.7 (a, b) Rice Mills at Bogalay Myoma, Bogalay Township
Source: Photograph taken by research (January,2013)
57
CHAPTER II
CURRENT CONDITION OF MANGROVE FORESTS
AND THEIR UTILIZATION IN BOGALAY TOWNSHIP
2.1 Classification of Land Cover and Land Use (Post-Nargis)
Based on the topographic maps (1595-01, 02, 05, 06, 09) and (1695-04, 07, 08, 11, 12) published in 2004, Landsat 7ETM+ taken in 2010 (Figure: 2.3) and on field observation, land cover in the mangrove area of Bogalay can be classified into six types as follows:
(1) Mangrove Forest Land
(Dense Mangrove and Sparse Mangrove)
(2) Agricultural Land
(3) Bare Land
(4) Swampy Land
(5) Water Body
(6) Grass Land
(1) Mangrove Forest Land
(Dense Mangrove and Sparse Mangrove)
Mangrove forest can be subclassed as dense and sparse mangrove forests. The areas occupied by these forests from 1924 to 2010 are presented in Table 2.1 and Figure 2.1. As mangrove forests thrive on the mudflat of the coastal area of Ayeyarwady and Yangon regions, about 30 percent or 16,800 hectares (41,512.8 acres) of the existing mangrove forests cover destroyed when the powerful tropical storm Nargis battered the area packing a wind speed of about 193.12 km (120 miles) per hour in May, 2008, according to joint assessment (PONJA) report. The storm also destroyed an estimated 200,999 hectares (496,668.52 acres) of forest plantation in Ayeyarwady and Yangon regions. Because of the damages caused by the storm the land cover change of the mangrove forests was highest and the most conspicuous among the six types of land cover, except Meinmahla Island. Based on satellite image, dense mangrove and sparse mangrove areas are 32,601.58 hectares (80,560 acres). (Table 2.2 and Figure 2.2) .
58
Table 2.1 Changes of Mangrove Forest Area during the Period from 1924
to 2010 in Bogalay Township
Mangrove
Area
1924
1954
1984
(Pre-Nargis)
1989
(Pre-Nargis)
2000
(Post-Nargis)
2010
Dense
Sparse
Dense
Sparse
Dense
Sparse
(acre)
(Township‟s%)
344,636
(46%)
316,632
(44%)
271,106
(37%)
190,191
(26%)
16,168
(2%)
98,829
(13%)
22,294
(3%)
48,468
(7%)
32,092
(4%)
(hectare)
139,472.2
128,139.2
109,715.1
76,969.3
6,543.12
39,995.71
9,022.16
19,614.35
12,987.23
Source: MIMU, Yangon (11.11.11)
050000100000150000200000250000300000350000400000192419541984198920002010Years Area (acres)
Figure 2.1 Changes of Mangrove Forest Area during the Period from 1924 to
2010 in Bogalay Township (11.11.11)
Source: Based on Table 2.1
59
Table 2.2 Total areas of each land use and land cover types in 2010 (Post-Nargis)
(Acres)
Types of Land
cover
Dense
Mangrove
Sparse
Mangrove
Agricultural
Water Body
Bare
Land
Swamp
Land
Grass
Land
Dense Mangrove
32,624
21,369.2
119,505.2
3,158.9
6,132.1
4,936.9
2,464.9
Sparse Mangrove
2,325.9
2,813.4
9,480
201.7
462.6
471.9
412
Agricultural
7,097.5
4,160.6
173,496.9
1,574.6
8,853.7
4,130.1
17,129.8
Water Body
1,597.6
347
2,816.7
82,952.3
149.9
5,632.4
179
Bare Land
1,228.9
1,222
16,901.3
143.3
1,053.3
1,216.9
1,132.2
Swamp
1,603
1,118
11,872.5
906.2
587.5
953.8
811.3
Grass
1,990.9
1,062.1
19,479.6
100.5
619.6
733.2
1,835.3
Total
48,468
32,092.3
353,552.3
89,037.3
17,858.5
18,075.2
23,964.3
Source: Landsat 7ETM+ Images in 2010 (11.11.11)
Agriculture WaterDense MangroveSparse MangroveSwampGrassBare
Figure 2.2 Types of land use and land cover in 2010 (Post- Nargis)
Source: Based on Table 2.2
Based on Change Matrix (2010)
60
Figure 2.3 Land Cover Classifications in Bogalay Township 2010
Source: Index of Satellite Image 133-49, Landsat 7ETM+ (2010). (Nov,2011)
61
(2) Agricultural Land
Most mangrove forests within the study area have been degraded by the human activities. Apart from cutting for firewood and baking charcoals, the extension of agricultural land over the area occupied by the degraded mangrove forests has resulted in the gradual decline of mangrove forest area. The rapid increase of population, lack of other job opportunity for the growing population, new agricultural lands were created in areas formerly occupied by the mangroves, by removing all the stumps and small plants in the degraded forest area. This is one of the chief causes of the contraction of mangrove area, which was more rapid in the period from 1984 to 2000.
For local food sufficiency and to boosting export, the previous governments encouraged farmers to grow paddy on the waste and virgin land. The increase in the agricultural land was mainly at the expanse of mangrove forest land . The agricultural lands are mostly found on the whole northern part, northeastern and northwestern part of the study area, except Meinmahla Island and Byonemhwe Island.
Based on satellite image, the agricultural land area in 2010 was 143,080.65 hectares (353,552.3 acres). The storm surge caused by the Nargis inundated the farmland with salty sea-water, resulting in the widespread destruction of planted paddy. The necessary measures have been undertaken to repair the farmlands and the production of paddy has regained its pre-Nargis condition.(Table 2.3)
(3) Bare Land
Bare land here refers to settlement land and unclassified land, as they appear the same color in the satellite image. In 2010, the area of bare land was 7,227.39 ha (17,858.9 acres) excepting Meinmahla Island and Byonemhwe Island, other reserved forests are allowed for human settlement. In 1957, Bawathit (new life) Model villages were set up by the government. After the storm Nargis, some homeless (loss of residential plot due to land collapse by storm surge) from Laputta, Warkema and Mawlamyinegyun were allowed to settle in Kadonkani Reserved Forest.
62
(4) Swampy Land
Swampy land area has increased by twenty times in the past twenty years. The rapid expansion of swampy land was due to modification of land to use as paddy land and the widening of highly depleted mangrove area which over time turn to unconsolidated mud- sand surface. In 2010, Bogalay Township had 7,314.85 hectares (18,075 acres) of swampy land. They are mostly found at Khanaung Village Tract and Ngapyaema Village Tract.
(5) Water Body
Bogalay Township occupies the southernmost part of the Ayeyarwady Delta and a number of streams flow criss-crossing and eventually enter the sea. There has been no marked difference in the area of water body in the pre- Nargis and post- Nargis periods. The area occupied by water body in 2010 was 36,032.78 ha (89,037 acres.)
(6) Grassland
Grasslands once covered the areas with alluvial and meadow gley soils. Raw grasses were also dominant in the swampy lowland areas. However, much of the areas covered with grasses have been converted into paddy land. The area occupied by grassland is less different between pre-Nargis and post- Nargis periods. The area of grassland covered 9,698 ha (23,964.18 acres) in 2010.
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Table 2.3 Paddy Cultivation of Bogalay Township (1972-73 to 2009-10)
Years
Paddy Cultivation
(acres)
(Hectares)
1972-73
194,722
78,802.91
1978-79
200,084
80,972.88
1980-81
204,757
82,864.02
1982-83
204,414
82,725.21
1984-85
251,023
101,587.60
1985-86
251,019
101,585.99
1986-87
250,506
101,378.38
1987-88
250,598
101,415.62
1989-90
216,443
**87,593.55
1990-91
250,681
101,449.20
1991-92
250,681
102,001.21
1992-93
236,723
95,800.48
1993-94
236,373
95,658.84
1994-95
235,796
95425.33
2000-2001
322,543
**130531.36
2009-2010
353,552
**143,080.53
*Settlement and Land Records Department (2011)
** Landsat Image
Source: Settlement and Land Records Department (2011)
64
0500001000001500002000002500003000003500004000001972-731978-791980-811982-831984-851985-861986-871987-881989-901990-911991-921992-931993-941994-952000-20012009-2010YearsPaddy Cultivation(acres)Paddy cultivation
Figure: 2.4 Paddy Cultivation of Bogalay Township
Source: Based on Table 2.3
2.2 Utilization of Mangrove
Mangrove forests provide a wide range of goods and services for which local people in the coastal areas have benefited since time immemorial. Mangroves are a crucial resource of timber and food.
A wide array of products, ranging from fuel wood, timber for construction, fishing materials, fiber for cloth, dyes, tannins for leather, pulp for paper, fodder for livestock, foods and medicines, honey, and variety of household items such as glue, soap, rope, cosmetics, pencils, matchsticks, tool handles, incense, and even “Christmas trees can be derived from many of the species in a functioning mangrove ecosystem. The products provided by the mangrove forests including wood and non-wood products are shown in (Table 2.4).
65
Table 2.4 Direct Products from Mangrove Forests
Source: Mangroves Ecosystem some Economic and Natural Benefits,
Maung Maung Aye, 1999
S.N
Uses
Products
1.
Fuel
Firewood for cooking, heating,Firewood for smoking fish;Firewood for smoking sheet rubber;
Firewood for burning brick,Charcoal; Alcohol
2.
Construction
Timber for scaffold; Timber for heavy construction e.g Bridges ;Railway ties; Mining pit props; Deck pilings; Building materials ;Fence posts ; water pipes; chipboards; glues, beams and poles for buildings; flooring ;parceling ; boat
3.
Fishing
poles for fish traps; fishing floats;fishing poisons;
tannin for net preservation; Fish attracting shelters
4.
Agriculture
fodder, green manure
5.
Paper Production
paper of various kinds
6.
Foods, Drugs, Beverages
Sugar, Alcohol; cooking oil; vinegar;Tea substitutes; Fermented drinks; Dessert topping; condiments from bank, fruit or leaves, cigarette wrappers; medicine from bark; leaves and fruits,
sweetmeats from propagules; vegetables
from propagules,
7.
Household items
Furniture; Glue; Hairdressing oil; Tool handles
rice mortar; toys; matchsticks; incense
8.
Textile and leather
synthetic fibers; dye for cloth; tannins for leather preservation
9.
Others
Packing boxes
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2.1.1 Utilization of Mangrove Wood products
Mangrove forests have silvicultural characteristics which lend themselves to intensive forest management for woody products; some of these characteristics are as follows: rapid growth, good regeneration potential and tendency to form homogeneous and diversity of forest products.
The main products of mangrove forest are timber, fire wood, charcoal, poles, and fishing gears, etc. Mangrove utilization varies depending upon individual species. Rhiziphora (Byu)and Ceriops decandra (Madama) species have been used for firewood and charcoal production and other mangrove species also commonly used for this purpose. Firewood is usually obtained from small size trees. Mangrove poles are used for many purpose but mainly for foundation pilling, scaffoldings, and fishing stacks, etc.
Plate: 2.1 Firewood Trolley (Byu, Madama and other species
of Mangrove ), Bogalay Myoma
Source: Photograph taken by researcher (Nov, 2011)
67
Plate: 2.2 Charcoal Bags (Madama, Byu and other species), Bogalay Myoma
Source: Photograph taken by researcher (Nov, 2011)
2.1.2 Utilization of Mangrove non-Wood Products
Mangrove-based non-wood resources including minor forest products, fishery and conversion of mangrove land to other land uses is given in the following: nipa palm, plantation establishment, extraction of sap, apiculture, wildlife, and crocodile farming.
Especially, non-wood products including tannin, from bark, are supplied to leather tannining industries. The bark of Rhizophora and Ceriops were used for tannin.
One of the most intriguing plants found in mangrove forests is that remarkably versatile palm the nipa palm (Nypa fruticans). It is one of the most common, widely distributed, and useful palms found naturally in mangrove forests of Asia and Oceania, and are also found in West Africa where it was introduced in 1906.
Nipa palms have historically provided many useful products to traditional people living near coastal and estuarine mangrove forests. The leaves, the juice or sap, and the fruit have been utilized for a wide variety of products, many of which have become the bases for cottage industries and commercial operations. The fruit of the nipa is also used for many purposes. The young seeds (gelatinous endosperm) are coated in sugar and eaten as sweetmeats. Although the mature seeds are very rough
68
and not edible, they may be converted into animal feed. The mature, hardened seed has also traditionally been used to produce sugar, vinegar, alcohol, and widely used fermented beverage called toddy in India, Bangladesh and Myanmar. The recent escalations in fossil fuel and fertilizer prices have stimulated renewed interest in the fuel-alcohol potential of „Nipa‟.(Plate 2.5 )
(a) Nipa palm (Nipa fruticans) (b) a commercial market for nipa
Shingles
(c) Handiwork and Sap (d)
Plate: 2.3 (a) Nipa palm (Nipa fruticans)
(b) A commercial market for nipa Shingles
(c,d) Handiwork and Sap
Source: Photographs taken by researcher (Date- 12.9.2009)
(Date- 12.9.2009)
69
The leaves have traditionally been harvested throughout its range for thatching material for roof shingles and walls for dwelling, poultry and pig houses, and for rest houses and picnic huts in recreational and resort areas. A commercial market for nipa shingles has developed in many parts of Asia, providing both employment opportunities, and inexpensive construction materials within the reach of the masses. Young leaves of nipa are used for wrapping tobacco. Some large-scale commercial interest is also currently developing for nipa products in many countries. Young shoots decayed wood, and burnt roots or leaves from nipa palm have been used medicinally for herpes, toothache, and headache.
Some mangrove species serve as raw materials for indigenous medicine. Honey, produced in the mangrove forest has valuable medicinal properties. As rapidly as the enormous direct and indirect value of mangroves, in sustaining a wide variety of renewable resources, has come to be appreciated and understood in recent years, the loss and destruction of mangroves appears to have proceeded faster.
70
CHAPTER III
CHANGES OF MANGROVE FORESTS IN BOGALAY TOWNSHIP
3.1 Change Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover
Before analyzing land use and land cover changes, it is necessary to classify the types of land use. Land use and land cover classification is primarily based on the multi-spectral Landsat images of different years. The remote sensing data and field survey data are used to compare to adjust the areas occupied by different types of land use. The dominant tree species and endangered species are noted during field survey. Topographic maps (1595 and 1695) with one inch to one mile together with multi-spectral Landsat 7ETM+ image of Bogalay with 30-meter resolution are used for digitized image processing.
First, the images are prepared for geo-referencing and rectification with RGB color composite. Rectification is processed by World Geodetic System (WGS 1984 Datum) with Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM Zone 46 North) Map Projection System. This has results in 7 different types of land use and land cover, including dense mangrove, sparse mangrove, agricultural land, bare land, swamp land, water body and grass land.
Standard Supervise Classification and Maximum Likelihood Classification are used for land cover classification. The classified land areas are checked by field work and confirmed by GPS and one- inch topographic map. Overall accuracy of the classification is estimated around 86 percent. The classification scheme is presented by flowchart in Figure 3.1.
71
Figure 3.1 Flow chart of showing the major step of land use and land cover
calssification
72
Figure 3.2 Land Cover Classifications in
Bogalay Township 1989
Source: Index of Satellite Image 133-49, Landsat 7ETM+ (2010). (Nov,2011)
Figure 3.2 Land Cover Classifications in
Bogalay Township 2000
73
The comparison between land cover classification map of 1989 and 2010, the agricultural land area increased by more than 40,469.44 ha (100,000 acres), the area occupied by mangrove forest was decreased by more than 40,469.44 ha (100,000 acres) (Figure 2.3 , 3.3). Much of the agricultural land covers the northern part of the township. The mangrove species has become sparse, except in well protected Meinmahla Island and Byonemhwe Island. Mangrove plantations are found in the certain parts of the coastal areas planted after Cyclone Nargis.
Based on Change Detection Analysis the estimated land cover and land use categories are presented at 10- year interval in Table 3.1. In 1989 the estimated dense and sparse mangrove areas were 76,969.37 ha (190,191.31 acres) and 6,543.12 ha (16,168.04 acres) respectively but, dense mangrove declined to 19,614.73 ha (48,468 acres) and sparse mangrove increased to 12,987.5 ha (32,092.3 acres) in 2010, with accelerated pace of degradation.
Bogalay Township had 87,593.55ha (216,443.67 acres) of agricultural land in 1989 and it sharply increased to 143,080 ha (353,552.3 acres) in 2010. Owing to the ingression of salty seawater, the agricultural lands were less productive for two successive years after the Cyclone Nargis. Now necessary modification measures have been undertaken and it has returned to pre-Nargis condition.
The swamp land area encountered no obvious change during the 1989-2000 periods, but it increased over 6,000 acres in the 2000-2010 periods.
As the pixel size of satellite images are based on 30-meter resolution, no roads appear clearly in the images and hence the area occupied by roads cannot be figured out. As shown in Table 3.2, the change in land cover is most obvious from mangrove forests to agricultural land and from dense mangroves to sparse mangroves.
In calculating the area of change from one type of land cover to another, Change Matrix is applied here. A change matrix is a table, similar to a spreadsheet that quantifies the amount of change that occurs between all of the land cover types. The matrix shows the “From” classes as columns and the “To” classes as rows. The number of rows and columns is determined by the number of classes in the land cover image. Each cell represents the area of the land cover change.
74
Table 3.1Total area of each land use and land cover types in 1989, 2000 and 2010
Land use categories
Acres
Changed Area
(Acre)
(from 1989 to 2010)
Hectares
1989
2000
2010
1989
2000
2010
Dense Mangrove
190,191.3146
98,829.405
48,468
(-)141,723.31
76,968.5
39,995.3
19,614.73
Water
93,682
92,592.49
89,037.3
(-)4,644.7
37,912.2
37,471.3
12,987.57
Agriculture
216,443.686
322,545.37
353,552.3
(+)137,108.61
87,592.6
130,531
143,080.7
Sparse Mangrove
16,168.04089
22,293.759
32,092.3
(+)15,924.259
6,543.04
9,022.06
7,227.24
Bare
22,897
30,280.173
17,858.5
(-)5,038.5
9,266.19
122,541
7,314.93
Grass
25,819.9
14,633.523
18,075.2
(-)7,744.7
10,449.1
5,922.04
9,698.22
Swamp
17,853
1,880.4645
23,964.3
(+)6,111.3
7,224.93
761.005
36,032.9
Class Total
583,055.9415
583,055.9415
583,055.94
182,097
346,243.7
235,955.2
Source: Landsat TM image classification (1989, 2000 and 2010)
Table 3.2 The result of change detection analysis based on the comparison of image classification in 1989 and 2000 (11.11.11)
Source: Landsat TM image classification (1989 and 2000)
Area (Acres)
Initial Status (1989)
Dense
Mangrove
Agriculture
Bare
Sparse Mangrove
Swamp
Grass
Water
Row Total
Final Status (2000)
Dense Mangrove
80,904.4516
7,484.7922
1,262.7
5,085.408552
1,764.3
1,835.99
494.21
98,829.405
Water
1,544.4025
689.421276
27.181
42.007748
573.28
39.5367
89,677
92,592.49
Agriculture
75,423.67601
188,009.33
18429
6,261.625496
12,417
18,691
3,313.7
322,545.37
Sparse Mangrove
9,212.052032
7,180.8538
995.83
2,703.322136
911.82
1,203.4
86.487
22,293.759
Bare
18,710.74517
5,465.9493
1,356.6
1,561.699808
1448
1,687.72
49.421
30,280.173
Grass
3,160.465276
7,339.0006
766.02
306.409456
672.12
2,349.96
39.537
14,633.523
Swamp
1,235.522
271.81484
61.776
207.567696
66.718
12.3552
24.71
1,880.4645
Class Total
190,191.3146
21,6443.68
22,897
16,168.04089
17,853
25,819.9
93682
583,50.23
75
Dense mangrove area in 1989 was 76,969.37 ha (190,191.3146 acres) (32.62 percent of total land cover of Bogalay Township area),the village tracts and Islands were Meinmahla Island, Byonemhwe Island, Lawkadat Island Dedoke Island, Kyeinchaung Village Tract ( Kadonkani Reserved Forest), Kyuntharyar Village Tract and Kadonkani Village Tract, Ayeyar Village Tract and it decreased to 39,995.71 ha (98,829.405 acres) (16.95 percent of total and cover of Bogalay area) in 2000 (Table 3.2). There was 32,741.58 ha (80,904.45 acres) (42.53 percent of total dense mangrove area in 1989) is still remained as unchanged area in 2000.About 44,227.78 ha (109,286.86 acres) (57.46 percent of total dense mangrove area in 1989 changed to other types of land cover. On the other hand, there is changed from other types of land cover to dense mangrove in 2000 was 7,255.12 ha (17,927.41 acres) or 18.14 percent of total mangrove area in 2000.
Sparse mangrove area has 6,543.12 ha (16,168.04089 acres) (2.77 percent of Bogalay township area) in 1989 and it increased to 9,022.16 ha (22,293.759 acres) (3.82 percent of Bogalay township area) in 2000.The village tracts more sparse mangroves are Kyeinchaunggyi Village Tract (Kadonkani Reserved Forest), Kyuntharyar Village Tract, Kadonkani Village Tract and Setsan Village Tract and Ayeyar village tract (Table 3.2).There is 1,094.01948 ha (2,703.322 acres) or 16.72 percent of sparse mangrove area in 1989 remained as unchanged area in 2000. The rest of 5,449.1 ha (13,464.71875 acres) or 83.28 percent of total sparse mangrove area in 1989 was changed to other land cover types.
During the 1989-2000 period, only 1,094.01ha (2,703.32 acres) of sparse mangrove land remained unchanged, while 5,449.09 ha (13,464.72 acres or 83.28 %) changed to other land cover types. On the other hand, other types of land cover also changed to sparse mangrove land, including 2,906.05 ha (7,180.85 acres) of agricultural land, 403.01 ha (995.83 acres) of bare land, 369.01 ha (911.82 acres) of swamp land, and 487.01 ha (1,203.4 acres) of grass land and 35 ha (86.49 acres) of water body.
76
The total area of agricultural land in 1989 was 87,593.55 ha (216,443. 686 acres or 37.12 percent) of the total land cover of the township. By the year 2000, it increased to 130,532.32 ha (322,545.37 acres) which represented 55.32 percent of the total township area (Table 3.2). Until 2000, 76,086.35 ha (188,009.38 acres or 86.86 percent) of agricultural land remained unchanged. The remaining 11,506.20 ha (28,431.83 acres or 13.13 percent) were changed to other types of land cover.
During that period other types of land cover also changed to agricultural land which included 75,423.68 acres of dense mangrove land, 2,534.04 ha (6,261.63 acres) of sparse mangrove land and 7,564.14 ha (18,691 acres )of grass land.
Satellite image records shows that about 50 percent of mangrove forests disappeared within 11-year period from 1989 to 2000, revealing rapid depletion rate of mangrove area.
Table (3.3) The result of change detection analysis based on the comparison of image classification in 2000 and 2010 (11.11.11)
Source: Landsat TM image classification (2000 and 2010)
Of all types of land cover, the changed area was highest in dense mangrove cover.
Area (acres)
Initial Status
Dense Mangrove
Agriculture
Sparse Mangrove
Bare
Grass
Swamp
Water
Row Total
Final Status
Dense Mangrove
33,319.56
7,210.51
3,961.08
1,445.56
1,497.45
4.94
1,030.43
48,467.06
Water
825.33
4,279.85
93.90
160.62
76.60
12.36
83,588.01
89,036.66
Agriculture
40,366.97
263,746.88
13,081.71
23,556.46
9,002.01
1,608.65
2,194.29
353,552.03
Sparse Mangrove
18,349.97
7,578.69
2,836.76
2,433.98
644.94
24.71
222.39
32,091.45
Bare
2,970.19
12,421.94
810.50
1,097.14
422.55
37.07
101.31
17,858.23
Swamp
1,153.98
10,447.57
415.14
476.91
111.20
163.09
5305.33
18,075.69
Grass
1,848.34
16,862.40
1,094.67
1,107.03
2,876.30
29.65
143.32
23,964.18
Class Total
98,829.40
322,545.37
22,293.76
30,280.17
14,633.52
1,880.46
92587.55
583,050.23
77
The area covered by mangrove forests in 2000 was 39,995.71 ha (98,829.40 acres) or 16.95 percent of the total land cover of Bogalay Township and it decreased to 19614.35 ha (48,467.06 acres) or 8.31 % in 2010. The area of dense mangrove forests that remained unchanged during the 2000-2010 period was 13,484.24 ha (33,319.56 acres or 33.71 percent) of the total dense mangrove area, whereas 26,511.46 ha (65,509.84 acres or 66.29 percent) of dense mangrove area changed to other types of land cover .In the same period, 6,130.10 ha (15,147.5 acres or 2.54 percent) of other types of land cover changed to dense mangrove forest.
The area occupied by sparse mangrove forest in 2000 was 9,022.16 ha (22,293.76 acres) which shared 3.82 percent of the total land cover of Bogalay Township and it increased to 12,987.23 ha (32,091.45 acres or 5.50 percent) in 2010. The area of sparse mangrove cover that remained unchanged in 2000-2010 period was 1,148.02 ha (2,836.76 acres or 12.72 percent) of sparse mangrove forest. The rest which covered 7,874.14 ha (19,457 acres) of land (87.28 percent) changed to other types of land cover. In the same period parts of other types of land also changed to sparse mangrove forest, including 7,426.13 ha (18,349.97 acres or 57.18 percent) of dense mangrove land, 3,026.58 ha (7,578.69 acres or 23.62 percent) of agricultural land 985.01ha (2,433.98 acres or 9.58 percent), bare land, 261ha (644.94 acres or 2%) of grass land, 10 ha (24.71 acres or 0.08 %) of swamp land and 90 ha (222.39 acres or 0.69%) of water body.
The total area of agricultural land in 2000 was 130,532.32 ha (322,545.37 acres or 55.13 percent) of the total land area of Bogalay Township and it increased to 143,080.54 ha or 353,552.03 acres (60.63 percent) in 2010. During the 2000-2010 period, the unchanged area of paddy land was 106,736.90 ha (263,746.88 acres or 81.77 percent) and the remaining 23,795.42 ha (58,798.49 acres or 18.23 percent) was changed to other types of land.
In the same period, some parts of other types of land cover changed to agriculture land, of which the dense mangrove land was largest in area with 16,336.28 ha (40,366.97 acres or 11.42 percent) of the agricultural land area of 2010. Other types of land that changed to agricultural land included 5,294.09 ha (13,081.71 acres) of sparse mangrove land which accounted for 3.7 percent of the total agricultural land in 2010, and 9,533.16 ha (23,556.46 acres or 6.66 percent) of bare land. (Table 3.3)
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The satellite images indicates that about 50 percent of mangrove disappeared within 10 years from 2000 to 2010 and at this rate the mangrove forests of Bogalay Township will be completely depleted by 2030. Unless such necessary and effective conservation measures as replanting in the degraded and depleted areas and reforestation are timely taken, the entire mangrove forests in Ayeyarwady Region including Bogalay Township will disappear by the year 2030.
Table 3.4 The result of change detection analysis based on the comparison of
image classification in 1989 and 2010
Area (acres)
Initial Status
Dense Mangrove
Agriculture
Bare
Sparse Mangrove
Swamp
Grass
Water
Row Total
Final Status
Dense Mangrove
32,624.0
7,097.5
1,228.9
2,325.9
1,603.0
1,990.9
1,597.6
48,468.0
Water
3,158.9
1,574.6
143.3
201.7
906.2
100.5
82,952.3
89,037.3
Agriculture
119,505.2
173,496.9
16,901.3
9,480.0
11,872.5
19,479.6
2,816.7
353,552.3
Sparse Mangrove
21,369.2
4,160.6
1,222.0
2,813.4
1,118.0
1,062.1
347.0
32,092.3
Bare
6,132.1
8,853.7
1,053.3
462.6
587.5
619.6
149.9
17,858.5
Swamp
4,936.9
4,130.1
1,216.9
471.9
953.8
733.2
5,632.4
18,075.2
Grass
2,464.9
17,129.8
1,132.2
412.0
811.3
1,835.3
179.0
23,964.3
Class Total
190,191.2
216,443.3
22,897.9
16,167.5
17,852.2
25,821.1
93,676.0
583,050.23
Source: Landsat TM image classification (1989 and 2010)
The change of different types of land cover, in the 20-year period from 1989 to 2010 was more obvious. In 1989, the township had 190,191.2 acres of dense mangroves and it decreased to 48,468.0 acres in 2010. The area of sparse mangrove cover in 1989 was 16,167.5 acres and it increased to 32,092.3 acres mostly at the expanse of dense mangrove area. As regards agricultural land, the study area had 216,443.3 acres of paddy land in 1989 and it increased to 353,552 acres in 2010, owing to implementation of Paddy I and Paddy II Projects, converting mangrove forest into agricultural land. The conversion of mangrove forests into other type of land cover is presented in Table 3. 4.
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On the other hand, other types of land more or less changed into dense mangrove land in which 7,097.5 acres of agricultural land was included. The main reason was the abandonment of the paddy fields due to extremely low productivity, and over time the fields were occupied by the mangroves.
The area occupied by the sparse mangrove cover in 1989 was 16,167.5 acres which accounted for 2.77 percent of the total land cover of Bogalay Township and it increased to 12,987.57 ha (32,092.3 acres or 5.50 percent) in 2010. The area of sparse mangroves that remained unchanged in the 20- year period was 1,138.56 ha (2,813.4 acres or 17.40 percent) of the total sparse mangrove area in 2010.
The rest which cover 11,848.92 ha (29,278.7 acres or 91.23 percent) was changed into other types of land in the 20-year period. As shown in Table 3.4, the change to agricultural land was highest in area. The increase in the area of sparse mangrove cover in 2010 was largely attributable to the degradation of dense mangrove forest because of overcutting.
In 1989, the total area of agricultural land was 87,593.40 ha (216,443.3 acres) which represented 37.12 percent of the total land cover of Bogalay Township and it increased to 143,080.65 ha (353,552.3 acres or 60.64 percent) in 2010.The agricultural land area that remained unchanged in the 20-year period from 1989 to 2010 was 70,213.23 ha (173,496.9 acres) representing 80.16 percent of the total agricultural land area in 1989. However, 17380.13 ha (42,946.3 acres or 19.84 percent) was changed to other types of land cover in 1989.
The area of change from agricultural land to grassland was highest among the different types of land cover. On the other land, other types of land also changed to agricultural land of which dense mangrove area was highest, followed by grassland.
Within the 20-year period from 1989 to 2010, the change was dramatic in dense mangrove cover which reduced about three- fourths and thus only about one-fourth remained unoccupied by other types of land. The growing of paddy within the mangrove area are (Pyindaye Reserved Forest, Kadonkani Reserved Forest, Setsan Village Tract, Gayan Village Tract, Pyinboegyi Village Tract, Kyeinchaunggyi Village Tract, Kadonkani Village Tract and Ayeyar Village Tract).
On the other hand, the agricultural land area has widened by more than 40,469.44 ha (100,000 acres), largely at the expense of dense mangrove land. The
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village tracts that converted paddy land are Setsan village tract, Hayman village tract, Magu village tract, Kyunnyo village tract and Daunkgyi village tract.
Except swamp land, all other types of landcover changed markedly, based on the satellite images.
In an average, the change of dense mangrove to other types of land use about 2,832.86 ha (7,000 acres) per year and thus it has been decreasing at the rate of about 5 percent annually. The sharp increase in the agricultural land area was due to population pressure and partly to government policy by which priority was given to paddy production than the conservation of mangrove forests.
The rapid depletion of mangrove forests in response to illegal and overcutiing of mangrove species for firewood and charcoal, combined with unpredictable climate change, may cause the coastal area of the deltaic region susceptible to serious natural hazard. In order to replenish the natural barriers of the sea charge, such fast growth species as Avicennia marina (Thamaephyu) have been planted.
Although such measure may prove effective to reduce the impact of strong wind and sea charge, certain native mangrove species have already been endangered. Carried away by powerful wind and strong currents or waves, certain plant species reached new places and thrive there where such species are not known before in these areas.
In 2010, mangrove forests were found dense and wide around Meinmahla Island. In most parts of the study area, formerly occupied by mangroves have been replaced by other types of land cover. As a result, when the powerful Cyclone Nargis lashed the area, except Meinmahla island, all other parts of the study area were seriously destroyed with height death toll particularly the village tracts locating to the right side the storm. A few villages that have wide barrier of mangrove suffered relatively less death toll and damage of building. As such, the coastal area needs dense and wide barrier of mangrove to protect or reduce the impact of storm or tsunami. The reforestation and long-term conservation projects of mangroves are discussed in the next chapter.
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3.2 Causes of Change
3.2.1 Natural Factors
3.2.1.1 Sea level condition
Sea level rise: Global sea- level rise is one of the more certain outcomes of global warming which is already taking place. Several climate models have been constructed to predict the rate of sea-level rise over the coming decades. There was highly significant correlation between the change in position of the seaward mangrove margin and change in relative sea-level. Here it can be inferred that the force of sea- level rise relative to the mangrove surface is causing landward migration.
A primary factor of the natural environment that affects Ayeyarwady mangroves over the long term is sea level and its fluctuations. The mean sea level of Bogalay Township is 1.43m (4.69 ft).
These are based mainly on sea-level rise that induce changing salinity gradients with no major consideration given to other climatic change phenomena such as warming, shifts in regional precipitation patterns and alterations in the frequency or intensity of cyclonic. Temperate alone can be expected to have a minimal effect.
No obvious sea level change has been detected in the pre-and post- Nargis periods in Bogalay Township. Sea level rose only drawing a short period as storm surge due to powerful Nargis. The mean sea level remains unchanged at 1.43 m. Therefore, the effect of global sea level change has no impact on the mangroves of Myanmar.
3.2.1.2 Storm
Cyclones are intense atmospheric depressions in which the winds whirl around a small calm‟eye‟. In coastal areas, cyclones bring the hazards of large waves and storm surges in addition to strong winds and torrential rain. The intense winds of cyclones are capable of generating very high seas. A temporary rise in the sea level is known as a storm surge. The majority part of the surge is usually caused by strong on-shore winds which exert a stress on the sea surface, causing the water to accumulate. As a cyclone moves into shallow coastal waters, the near-shore bed and coastline modify the surge, resulting in a substantial amplification of its height. The great loss
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of human lives due to cyclones has often been a result of high storm surges that led to drowning.
In Myanmar, the tracks of storms and depressions vary widely in the different months and seasons. In May (pre-monsoon month), the Bay storms mostly recurve and 70% of them strike the coast between Calcutta and Yangon. The percentage of disturbances which develop into cyclonic storms varies widely from month to month. It is as low as 16% and 19% in August and September, respectively.May, November and December have the highest percentage of disturbances developing into storms.
( Maung Maung Aye, 1998). (Fig: 3.4 Cyclone Path)
Figure 3.4 Cyclone Nargis Affected Areas and Cyclone Path
Source : PONJA, 2008
Cyclone Nargis slammed Myanmar from 2-3 May 2008 with gushing winds of 190-230 kph and waves up to 3-5 m (9.8- 16.4 ft) , causing severe damage to the Ayeyarwady Delta. Due to the immense magnitude of Cyclone and associated tidal surges, most of the mangrove forests in the delta were destroyed.
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Pre- Cyclone Nargis Conditions in the Ayeyarwady Delta: Most of the Ayeyarwady Delta includes in the administrative unit of the Ayeyarwady Region, which covers 35,136 square km (13,566.1sq. miles) and has a population density of 180 persons per square kilometre. The residents of the Delta area are primarily farmers, fishermen and laborers, with a smaller proportion engaged in service industries and traders. Approximately 50 to 60 percent of families in the Delta are engaged in agriculture. They live in small villages along the banks of the tidal waterways and in scattered settlements throughout the delta. Mangroves grown in the reserve forests and among the settlements, provide the main source of materials for housing and fuel wood, and are a nursery area for fisheries. Many people live in mangrove reserve forests in the delta although settlements have only been officially allowed in reserve forests since 1960.
Post –Cyclone Nargis Conditions in the Ayeyarwady Delta: The mangroves in Bogalay are primarily located in three reserve areas, including 15 villages in the Kadonkani Reserve Forest, and forestry camps in Meinmahla Reserve Forest and Byonemwe Island. These villages and camps were located at different distances from the cyclone track and had different land-use patterns, especially regarding the amount of mangrove forests, which included natural stands and plantations. Physical damage to mangrove forests included uprooting of trees damage to crowns and branches, and crown defoliation. Trees were fallen or left standing without leaves, twigs, or branches, damage clearly caused by the strong winds. The greatest damage occurred close to the cyclone track. Plate : 3.1
Plate 3.1 Post-Nargis broken forest canopy of mangrove at Byonemhwe
Island,Bogalay Township
Source: MERN, Yangon (2008)
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The broken forest canopy encouraged colonization of invasive light demanding plant species such as Acanthus ilicifolius (Suukaya), Phoenix paludosa ( Thinbaung) and Acrostichm aurecum ( Hngetgyidaung).
Damage to the mangrove forests was assessed for the Heritiera formes(Kanazo), Bruguiera sexangula (Byushwewar), Avicennia Officinalis( Thamegyi), Avicennia marina (Thamaephyu), and Sonneratia apetala(Kanbala) (on Byonemwe Island and in the Southern part of Pyindaye Reserve Forest. ( Maung Maung Than, 2008).Based on satellite images and ground surveys of the mangroves and coastal forests cover pre-and post- Nargis 16,800 ha (41,513.3 acre) (30%) of natural forest were lost as a result of the cyclone. In addition, an estimated 21,000 ha (51,891.6 acre) of forest plantations were damaged. (Souce: PONJA) (Fig: 3.5)
Fig: 3.5 Mangrove and Flooded Area-AyeyarwadyRegion Source: PONJA, Yangon (2008)
Figure 3.5 Mangrove and Flooded Area, Ayeyarwady Region
Source: PONJA, Yangon (2008)
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After the powerful storm, the villagers realized the importance of mangroves that played a critical role in mitigating the damages caused by the cyclone. To reinforce this awareness, extensive local educative talks should be carried out. Because of the impact of Cyclone Nargis, the local people realized the value of mangrove forests.The farming and fishing communities suffered of livestock, crop seedlings, equipment, boats, nets etc. In addition to the loss of human lives, hundreds of households of people were left homeless.
As regards with land holdings 68% of land owners own more than 10 acres of land, the majority of them growing paddy. The main income for 37 % of population comes from fishing. To supplement their income, 80% of households raise livestock and 18% grow vegetables.
The degradation and denudation of mangrove forests in Myanmar are a major concern for the people living along the coastal area. With a limited area of mangroves the socio-economic and environmental conditions of coastal community will be greatly affected.
Unless proper remedial measures are immediately taken, these forests will soon disappear. The impact of Cyclone Nargis indicated the alarming situation of mangroves and coastal forest depletion in the delta region.
In the case of Cyclone Nargis, many survivors escaped the brutal storm surge by gripping onto the branches and stems of trees in or near their villages. They would not have survived without theses trees and many people became aware of the importance of mangrove including beach and dune forests in mitigating the impacts on natural storm hazards. ( Fig: 3.6)
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Figure 3.6 Cyclone Nargis : Most Affected Areas by percent of Population and Area
Source : PONJA, 2008
There are many things to be undertaken in the post Nargis period in terms of restoration of mangrove and coastal forests. The Myanmar Forest Department is planning to rehabilitate the forests through natural and artificial regeneration (MFD, 2008). The extent of reforestation to be conduced is 177,308 ha (438,133 acres involving seven townships of the Ayeyarwady delta. The program will be implemented in collaboration with the local communities and non-governmental organizations.
3.2.1.3 Salinity Conditions
Changing environmental conditions, in particular salinity, can also lead to mangrove degradations and die-off changes in salinity can be influenced by climate as well as by human impacts caused by leakage from salt extraction pans or by the damming or redirection of rivers. (Schmitz et al, 2006)
Salinity is one of the important factors for the survival of mangrove throughout the year. Salinity and interstitial water salinity are important to growth
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rate, survival rate and distribution mangrove species as well as strongly related to the distance from the sea, topography, tidal action and precipitation of the rain.
The climate of Ayeyarwady Delta is characterized by a highly seasonal precipitation, which results in a long rainy season (mid May to mid October), a short rainy season (mid October to mid November) and dry season (March – May).The Rivers flood from mid June to mid November. At this time for five months, the salinity of river is greatly diluted by rain water. For the remaining seven months river water is strongly affected by sea water except in small creeks.
There have been no salinity measurements on a long term basis for the analysis of the spatial and temporal variation in the mangrove habitats. Mangrove Service Network (NGO) carried out research on distribution of salinity in Ayeyarwady river system in 2000. As shown in Fig: 3.7, the measurement of salinity distribution from river mouths through Meinmahla, Byonemhwe and Deedote Islands in the rainy season revealed 12-22 part per thousand (%.) for the salinity of brackish water. According to measurements from Meinmahla to the south of Kyunnyogyi Island , the rate of salinity is 0-5 ppt in the rainy season and 5-20 ppt in summer. From the south of Kyunnyogyi Island toward inland, it is 0-5 ppt in the rainy season and 5- 10 ppt in the summer. The range of salinity between 5- 30 ppt is relatively low in the mangrove areas of Ayeyarwady. The maximum salinity for the study area was 0-2.4 ppt observed at the Byonemwe Island. Salt tolerant mangroves have various unique shapes and characteristics. Some mangrove species, e.g, A. marina (Thamaephyu) grow well in high salinity condition, while others survive just by receiving salt vapour, e.g. Heritiera Fomes (Kanazo).
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Figure 3.7 Salinity Distrubution of Ayeyarwady Delta
Source: MSN, Bogalay (2009)
3.2 Human Induced factors
3.2.2.1 Conversion of Paddy Cultivation
The crops grown in Bogalay Township are cereal crops, oil-seed crops, industrial raw material crops, pulses, garden crops, vegetables and others. Among these crops, paddy is by far the most important. Paddy became a dominant crop after the Lower Myanmar was occupied by the British in 1852. The colonial government successfully managed to turn the vast waste land of the Ayeyarwady deltaic region into commercial rice producing area. Since then, paddy was ranked first in terms of sown area. Pawsan and Baegyar which won first prize in rice competition held in the Philippines in November, 2010 are the most common varieties sown in Bogalay as well as in other townships of Ayeyarwady deltaic region, due to their suitability to the existing physical conditions, low demand of fertilizers and high marketability with relatively high price.
Like Rakhine State, Ayeyarwady Region is now taking effort to improve rice farming techniques to boost production and to reduce poverty in the rural area. When the local farmers are asked whether they are going to grow paddy at their expense or grow mangroves by the financial assistance of the government. Cent percent are
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inclined to grow paddy because they can gain profit in five month‟ time. On the other hand, it takes 3-4 years to be able to start cutting the mangroves. Due to frequent educative talks on the importance of mangrove forests, the local inhabitants are aware of the vitality of the existence of mangroves. However, there is no better alternative than rice cultivation for the livelihood of the local populace.
The satellite images for 1989, 2000 and 2010 show that the area occupied by paddy land has been expanding. It was 87593.55 ha (216,443. 68 acres) in 1989 and increased to 13,170.93 ha (32.545.37 acres) in 2000 and to 143080.54 ha (353,552.03 acres) in 2010.
The average increase rate was over 404.69 ha (1,000 acres) per year in the 1989-2000 period and over 1,214.08 ha (3,000 acres) per year in the 2000-2010 period. The current socio- economic condition, the growing population pressure and the policy of new government all induce further extension of agricultural land. According to satellite image taken in 2010 and field observation, mangroves are found limited in Meinhlama Island and along the narrow belt of the tidal creeks, while the vast area of the township reflects the green and yellowish shade of paddy. The southern part is dominated by sea sesame which is a highly profitable cash-crop.
The slight decrease in the sown area of paddy in some years was due to replacement of dhani land or the construction of inter- village roads. The village tracts located in the southeastern part have relatively large paddy land area, such as Setsan 6002.42 ha (14,832 acres), Hayman 3875.75 ha (9,577 acres) and Ma-U 4889.92 ha (12,083 acres). The village tracts that have 647.51-809.38 ha (1,600-2,000 acres) of paddy land are Petpye, Pyinboogyi, Byusakhan, Paungte, Ngabyayma, Khanaung and Daukkyi. Some farmers own over 60.70 ha (150 acres) of paddy land each. At present the encroachment of agricultural land plots over the mangrove land essentially to grow sea sesame, is not uncommon in Pyindaye Reserved Forest. (Plate 3.1, 3.2)
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Plate 3.1 Ploughed Fields for Summer Paddy (Pawsanmhwe)
at Tharpaung Village, Kadonkani Reserve Forest
Plate 3.2 Summer Paddy Farming Group at Malot Villge ,Bogalay Township
Source: Photographs taken by researcher (January, 2013)
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3.2.2.2. Human Settlement
3.2.2.2.1 Increase of Population in Mangrove Areas
The population of Myanmar increased from 16.824 million in 1941 to 28.921 million in 1973, 35.308 million in 1983, and 44.744 million in 1995. (ESCAP‟ estimate for Myanmar was 46. 572 million in 1995.) The estimated population in 2000 was over 50 million (ESCAP‟s estimate 55.1 million). According to ESCAP‟s estimate Myanmar‟s population will be 61.496 millions in 2010 and the doubling time at current rate will be 33 years i.e. in 2028. ( Hla Tun Aung, 2003). The population of Rakine State in 1973 was 1.7 millions and over 2 millions in 1983. The estimated population was 2.6 million in 1973 and 2.7 million in 2000 and 3 million in 2010. The population of Tanintharyi Region was 718,000 in 1973, 914,000 in 1983. The estimated population was 1.27 million in 1997 and 1.35 million in 2000 and 2 million in 2010. The total population of Ayeyarwady Region, the largest in Myanmar, was about 6 millions in 1993, about 6.4 millions in 1997 and 6.8 millions in 2000 and over 7 millions in 2010. This region is the most populous area in Myanmar. The population has been increasing in the three mangroves areas (Ayeyarwady Delta, Rakhine and Tanintharyi) in Myanmar.
The population of Yangon Region was 3.2 millions in 1973 and about 4 millions in 1983. The estimated population was 5.3 millions in 1997 and 5.56 millions in 2000 and over 6 millions in 2010.
The population of Bogalay Township where mangrove forests are dominant has also increased. The population of Bogalay Township in 1973 was 230,623 and 439,210 in 2005. In the Post Cyclone Nargis period , the population of this area decreased to 328,738 in 2011 respectively.
Intrusion of Human Settlement and Garden Land : Many people live in mangrove reserved forests in the delta, although settlements have only been officially allowed in reserved forest since 1960 and mainly for livelihood. The majorities are farmers who primarily grow paddy and the rest earn their livelihood by gardening, fishing, catching, crab and culturing prawn.
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In Bogalay Township, where there is less intrusion of saline water and on sandy ridges where water can be obtained, the reserved tidal forests have been intruded by growing of dani, coconut, betelnuts and betel leaves, mangoes, lime and pineapple as well as garden crops.
In Bogalay Township, garden lands are found in the southern part of the township, where coconuts are grown on commercial scale. Human settlement and intrusion of garden lands for various reasons has destroyed the mangrove forests to a considerable extent in Bogalay Township. Some parts of the reserved forests are being protected from human settlement. (Table 3.23)
Table 3.5 Protection of Reserved Forest in Bogalay Township
Name of Reserve
Area of Reserve
Area Protected
Acres
Hectares
Acres
Hectares
Kadonkani
149,511
60506.27
33,340
13492.51
Pyindaye
189,876
76841.76
-
-
Meinmahla
33,779
13670.17
33,779
13670.17
Source: Forest Department, 2004 (23.5.2011)
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Plate 3.2 (a) Intrusion of Human Settlement (Cutting of firewood), Pyindaye Reserve Forest
Source: MSN, Bogalay (2010)
Plate 3.2 (b) Garden land at Padamyakone Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest
Source: Photograph taken by researcher (January,2013)
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3.2.1.3 Fishery
Mangrove ecosystems are important for inshore and offshore fisheries. They supply organic matter and nutrients through a variety of flora, while providing nurseries and shelter for important marine stocks. ( Nay Win Oo, 2001)
The permanent inland water bodies of Myanmar- lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and ponds-cover about 13, 000 square km (5,019.33 sq.miles). This area varies throughout the year when floodplains and rice fields are flooded, providing a further 68,000 square km ( 26,254.9 square miles) of rich seasonal fishing grounds. Throughout the country there are (3,725) flood plain fisheries concessions (leasable fisheries or inns) nearly half of which (1,738) are located in Ayeyarwady Delta.
In the Bogalay Township, fishery is the secondmost important economic activity after agriculture. The physical condition of Bogalay is most suitable for fishing industry, since it lies close to the sea. (Plate 3.3 a)
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Plate 3.3 Fishery Market at Setsan Village ,Bogalay Township(15.7.11)
Source: MSN Office , Bogalay Town
As a result, not only the local people but also those from the neighbouring township earn their living by fishing and many have intruded into the reserved forests. The mangrove forests are areas where fish, prawns, and crabs (marine animals) feed on their nutrients as well as their breeding ground and in the above – mentioned forest lands marine animals breed well. There are 116.20 acres of fish ponds or 14 lakes in Phayarchaung, Thazinkone, Tharpaung, Kyisukyonephar, Supataungkone, Thuawa, Phoeyaung, Thittochaung and Nyinungwa village tracts.
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Plate 3.4 Fish Pound at Setsan Village Tract, Bogalay Township(15.11.2011)
Source: MSN Office, Bogalay Town
To increase fish production, enrichment stocking is practiced in some inns. The so-called „open fisheries „are accessible to all to fish with licensed gear. In addition to these two categories of inland fishing, household subsistence fishing is widely practiced in Bogalay. Moreover, the formal fisheries, aquatic organisms (fish, crab, mollusks, frog etc.) widely provide essential livelihood, support, in particular to the landless and the poorest elements of the population.
The Cyclone- affected areas are among the most diverse fishery regions in the world. In many places, a whole range of fishing and aquaculture practices is found in one location, while in most other places these are geographically distinct. Coastal fishing villages in the Ayeyarwady Delta, for example, are home to marine and inland fishermen, as well as the location of commercial and household aquaculture undertakings.
Pre-Cyclone Nargis: Fish is considered an essential part of the diet of the people of Myanmar, second only to rice. The country is endowed with rich and varied marine coastal and inland fishery resources, has a coastline of 2,832 km (1,762.21miles ) and a total marine fishery area of 486,000 square km (187,646 sq.miles). Before the Cyclone, 32,632 in-shore fishing vessels and 2, 054 off-shore fishing vessels were operating in Myanmar waters. (PONJA,2008)
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Post- Cyclone Nargis : The destruction caused to the fisheries sector ( each subsector of the fisheries leasable, open, inshore, offshore, aquaculture and subsistence, employs specific gear and tools and operations) was brought about in three main ways:
(a) damage from high winds and debris and related impact caused by the storm surge,
(b) flooding and intrusion of salt water. Common also is the damage to post- harvest capabilities, i.e. the loss of fish processing, marketing and transport infrastructure and equipment.
(c) The off-shore fisheries and the in-shore fisheries were struck hard. Fish processing installations were damaged or destroyed. The inland fisheries suffered damage in the form of loss or damage to fishing and transport boats, fishing gear and equipment, including ice factories and cooking facilities. Many skilled fishermen and processors died in flooding during the storm.
Shrimp Ponds : As Bogalay Township lies open to the sea in the southern part of Ayeyarwady Region, it is replete with streams and other forms of water body which serve ideal habitat for fish, prawn and other aquatic organisms.
The biggest threat for the survival of mangrove ecosystems is new establishment of shrimp aquaculture industries. Since 1975, the World Bank financed a program to set up shrimp farms to meet the protein need of local people of the third world.
Accordingly, shrimp culture was carried out since 2005 in Ahmar Sub-township, Tepinseik, Phoebakone, Kyaungkone and Naukmee village tracts in dug ponds after removing the mangroves. By the end of June, 2009, the village tracts were constituted in Pyapon Township, and thus there is no shrimp pond in Bogalay.
Like creating paddy field, embankment around the chosen plot in mangrove forest has to be constructed and sluce gate is kept at the mouth of the stream. As mangrove species can not survive for long under fresh water, most of the trees die several weeks later. Then the trees are cut and removed from the plot. In this way much of the mangroves have been destroyed due to shrimp culture in dug ponds. As such shrimp culture has not been allowed within Bogalay Township since recently.
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Salt Industry : Since Bogalay Township is fronted by the sea, the majority earn their living on both on-shore and off-shore fisheries. To preserve the surplus fish, a large amount of salt is necessary which gives rise to salt-making industry. The industry has been carried out in sea- fronted village tracts of Naukmee and Seikma, covering 253 ha (625.16 acres) of salterns. In 2009, these two village tracts were constituted in Pyapon Township. The existing salterns were destroyed by the storm Nargis and thus Bogalay has to procure salt from Laputta.
Salt industry is one of the causes of mangrove forest depletion/ degradation. The land suitable for making salt field naturally has hard surface layer owing to the concentration of salt crystals. Besides, the low lying areas among the streams with soils high in salinity are also suitable to make salt fields. In making salt fields all the trees as well as the bushes are to be removed clearly including the tree roots and grasses. The land also needs to be leveled off. If salt fields used for salt production are abandoned for various reasons mangrove can not be replanted on these fields because the soil has become hard. (Table 3.6 )
Table 3.6 Townships that extract salt in Ayeyarwady Delta (2002)
Sr.No
Township
2002(ha)
2010(ha)
1
Bogalay
253
Nil
2
Laputta
4,800
5,000
3
Mawlamyinegyun
Nil
Nil
Source: Divisional Forest Office, Pyapon (2002)
3.2.2.4 Road Construction
For the smooth and speedy flow of people and commodity, more and more roads that connect between towns and villages have been constructed. The newly constructed roads are Bogalay-Setsan- Htawpaing- Amar Road 61.6 kilometres (38/5 miles) (Plate 3.5)which runs parallel to the Bogalay River channel across the western part of Pyindaye Reserved Forest, Parpon- Kyonkadon- Daw Nyein- Ahmar Road 84 kilometres (52/5 miles ) and Kyonkadon- Setsan Road 30.56 kilometres (19/1 miles)
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that runs across Pyindaye Reserve Forest . As the study area is replete with rivers and creeks, 37 bridges had to be built in the construction of these roads.
Another road is Bogalay-Kyeinchaung-Kadon road which is 67.52 kilometres (42/2 miles) long, (Plate: 3.6) 9.75 metres (32 feet) wide and the road runs across the Bogalay River.The total length of roads that are newly constructed or upgraded in Ayeyarwady Region is 864 kilometres (540 miles). The improvement of road transport enhances the interaction between regions and good accessibility to exploit the existing complementarity of the mangrove forests which are of high demand for fuel and rural household uses.
The newly constructed and the upgraded roads in recent years are as follows;
- Maubin-Yaylekalay- Shwetaunghmaw- Kyaikpi- Mawlamyinegyun Road, 69.6 kilometres (43/5 miles)
- Mawlamyinegyun –Hlaingphone- Thitpok- Kwinpauk- Pyinsalu Road, 115.68 kilometres (72/3 miles)
- Laputta- Thingangyi- Pyinsalu Road, 56.32 kilometres (35/2 miles)
- Pyapon- Kyonkadon-Daw Nyein-Ahmar Road, 82.4 kilometres (51/5 miles)
- Kyonkadon-Setsan Road , 30.56 kilometres (19/1 miles)
- Pathein-Thalatkhar – mawtinsun Road ,153.6 kilometres (96/0 miles)
- Bogalay- Mawgyun- Warkhema- Myaungmya road ,105.6 kilometres (66/0 miles)
- Pathein- Ngaputaw road ,25.6 kilometres (16/0 miles)
- Bogalay-Kyeinchaung-Kadon Road, 67.52 kilometres (42/2 miles)
- Bogalay-Setsan- Htawpaing-Ahmar Road , 61.6 kilometres (38/5 miles)
In order to have continuous road links 518 bridges had to be built in the Ayeyarwady deltaic region.
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The development of road links in the Ayeyarwady deltaic region including Bogalay Township, helps improve the accessibility and they are highly supportive to the exchange of goods from one place to another, particularly beneficial to sending perishable items like fish, prawn and other aquatic products by road transport which takes much shorter travel time on the way.
High accessibility also helps to narrow the gap between rural and urban areas in education, health and socio-economic status. Domestic as well as foreign tourists are increasingly interested in well protected Meinmahla Island Wildlife Sanctuary and the coastal area of the delta and thus the road links are of great help to the development of ecotourism.
The southern part of Bogalay Township is more favorable for growing sea sesame than paddy. The high suitability of the crop to the existing physical environment and high market demand for the crop benefit the local farmers with the improvement of road transport. However, as the two main roads run across the reserved forest, the mangrove forests are more likely to degrade and deplete in the near future, unless necessary measures are taken to protect the forests.
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(a) (2009)
(b) (2013)
Plate 3.5 (a, b) Bogalay-Satsun-Htawpine-Ahmar Road Construction Project, 2009 and 2013, Passing through Pyindaye Reserved Forest
Source: Photographs taken by research (2009 & 2013)
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Plate 3.6 a, Bogalay-Kyeinchaung-Kadonkani Road,passing through Kadonkani Reserve Forest
Source: Photograph taken by researcher (Nov, 2009)
Plate 3.6 b, Transportation Network of Ayeyarwady Delta
Source: Road Construction Project, Bogalay Township (2013)
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CHAPTER IV
CONSERVATION AND REHABILITATION OF
MANGROVE FORESTS
4.1 History of Mangrove Conservation and Rehabilitation in Bogalay Township
As Myanmar has varied landforms and experiences different types of climate, it is rich in biodiversity with 285 families of flora, consisting of about 7,000 species of trees, shrubs, herbs, bamboos and climbers of which 1,070 species are endemic to Myanmar. (MFD: History of Myanmar Forest, 2008)
Colonial Period (1886- 1947)
Dr. Nathaniel Wallic first suggested to establish teak plantation in 1826.By 1855 Myanmar forests came under the control of the British and exploitation of the valuable forests were timely checked. In 1856, Dr.Dietrich Brandis was appointed to the charge of the forests and the foundation for the conservation; administration and organization of the forest in Indian and Myanmar were laid out. With this appointment, scientific management under the Myanmar Selection Felling System has become a solid foundation for today‟s sustainable yield forest management practice. In 1856, compartment plan for the forests of Bogo Yoma was laid out and importance of shifting cultivation for the establishment of forest was reported to the governor. Rules and regulations for the extraction of the forests of Lower Myanmar were prescribed in 1856-58.
Scientific forest management for Taninthrayi and Mottama areas began in 1857 and methods for measuring value and estimation of annual allowable cut were introduced. The Forest Law (1865) was promulgated in 1865 and amendments in 1869. As a first time, 17 reserved forests were constituted in Myanmar in 1870. The law was supplemented by Burma Timber Act in 1873.Separate forest act for lower Myanmar was prescribed in 1887 and Forest Survey Department was formed in 1882. Upper Burma Forest Regulation No.6 was enacted in 1887. By 1893, Myanmar had 4 forest divisions and these are Eastern Forest Division, Western Forest Division, Bago Forest Division and Tanintharyi Forest Division. Ayeyarwady Region was included in the Western Forest Division. For more effective forest management, 1902 Myanmar
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Forest Act was promulgated and the Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act, in 1912. Pitaung Wildlife Sanctuary was first established in 1918. The Ministry of Forestry was formed in 1923 and Burma Wildlife Protection Act, 1936 was promulgated in 1936. (MFD: History to Myanmar Forest, 2008)
Early Independence Period
Soon after the independence the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was formed and the State Timber Board by the order of the President. The board was allowed the right of timber extraction in accord with the agreements signed. The State Timber Board was reorganized in 1951 for sustainable development. Burma Wildlife Protection Act 1936 was amended in 1955-56 and furniture and value-added wood-based industry was handed over by Rural Agriculture Development Corporation to the State Timber Board. (MFD: History to Myanmar Forest)
Revolutionary Council Period (1962-1974)
Large-scale No-14 Saw-mill was established on the land formerly belonged to Bombay Burma Company. Swa Plywood Factory (No 3) was built in 1966.All the saw-mills (53) from 9 States and Regions were nationalized. Myanmar Timber Industry was reconstituted as Timber Corporation. (MFD: History to Myanmar Forest)
Period of Myanmar Socialist Party Regime (1974-1988)
The establishment of tidal forest plantation began in 1975 and natural forest protection measures were undertaken. In 1980, implementation of forest conservation and national park projects were activated and Wildlife Protection and Conservation Department was formed in 1981. In 1984, Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park in Yinmarpin Township was established. During the 1985-86 financial year 36,422.50 ha (90,000 acres) of land was afforested.
Generally, teak and other valuable species were given first priority in protection, conservation and rehabilitation since the days of Myanmar Kings until 1988.As conservation measure, Meinmahla Island was recognized as a wildlife sanctuary in 1985.
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After 1988, the new forest law was promulgated in November 1992, incorporating many essential modifications of which salient points are:
(i) the realization of the basic principle formulated in the forest policy and to enlist the public cooperation in implementation,
(ii) serious consideration on self-sufficiency of the forest products, to be accomplished through conservation of the natural forest estates,
(iii) the reduction of the state monopoly of the forestry trade and the encouragement of private sector role,
(iv) the establishment of industrial and multipurpose tree plantations in local supply reserves as a basis for domestic use and commercialization and
(v) The relaxation of the state control in forestry matters to improve the social and economic well-being of the rural populace.
Although the rules and regulations and the objectives focuses on the sustainable development of natural forests and forest plantations, the rate of mangrove forest depletion and degradation has been escalating in the Ayeyarwady deltaic region since 1991 due to illegal and over cutting and weak law enforcement. It was estimated in 1992 that the total area occupied by mangrove forests in Rakhine State, Tanintharyi and Ayeyarwady Regions was 390,155.80 ha (964,075 acres). During the period from January 1994 to September 1996, Myanmar government in cooperation with UNDP carried out flexibility study on mangrove reforestation in Ayeyarwady Region, particularly in Laputta and Bogalay townships and reforested 566.57ha (1,400 acres) of mangrove forest and offered 1.755 million seedlings of mangrove species and 3,000 stoves that consume little fuel to the local populace.
As implementation of environmentally sustainable food security and micro-income opportunities in Ayeyarwady Region, 323.75 ha (800 acres) of community forest have been undertaken. In addition, bank collapse protection work was carried out during the period from October 1996 to April 1999 in coordination with UNDP and Forest Department. In order to curb the over cutting of mangroves for firewood, 20,000 fuel –saving stoves were also given to the local inhabitants.
The study on Integrated Mangrove Management through community participation in Bogalay and Laputta townships was carried out in the period from February 2002 to February 2004. The study included socio-economic survey on settlements within and around the mangrove areas and drawing plan for database
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construction and Integrated Mangrove Management. By the end of 2004, systematic measures for 10,117.36 ha (25,000 acres) of mangrove plantations established. Moreover, 4,451.63 ha (11,000 acres) of community forest for local populace were also established. (Source: History to Myanmar Forest)
Post-Nargis (After 2008)
In May, 2008, the powerful Storm Nargis destroyed 15,378.38 ha (38,000 acres) of natural and planted mangrove forests, 63 percent of farmland and 43 percent of ponds used for drinking water. The widespread destruction was largely due to unprecedented strong wind accompanied by high storm surge and partly due to the depletion of 75 percent of the original mangroves which to some extent retort the force of wind velocity and rising seawater.
The storm has given lesson to the local people, government, UN, NGOs and INGOs that just resource management schemes only cannot achieve the sustainable development in practice. When Cyclone Nargis lashed the area, some people survived due to the presence of Avicennia (Thamae) species of mangroves and notably low in areas with dense mangroves. As disaster risk mitigation measures, local people, government, foreign direct investors, UN, NGOs, INGOs and private or group donors have been materializing long-term period project in the risk areas of the delta.
According to the study of Mangrove Environmental Rehabilitation Network (MERN), Rhizophora apiculata (Byuchidauk (Apo)), Sonneratia apetala (Kantblalar), and Avicennia officinalis (Thamaegyi) are not strong enough to withstand the impact of strong whipping wind like Byushwewar Brugniera sexan (Byushwewar), Avicennia marina (Thamaephyu) and Heritierial fomes (Kanazo). Therefore, the planting of Avicennia marina (Thamaephyu) , which grows fast, has been giving first priority in rehabilitation measure. This, however, can lead to low biodiversity.
Anyhow, the rehabilitation measures have proved success within the study area and the socio-economic status and mangrove forests have already improved to pre-Nargis conditions. The heavy dependence of local people on the mangrove forests and disaster mitigation objective must be well adjusted between the local inhabitants and those involve in land management of the mangrove ecosystem.
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4.2 Government Policy and Implementation
The successive government‟s promulgated laws, regulations, acts and rules to effectively manage the forest resources of the country in cooperation with the peoples the regulations were at times amended with holistic view and balance manner. The objectives of the current forest policy are as:
1) Protection of forests essential on climate or physical ground
2) Conservation and establishment of commercial forests for supply of valuable timber for domestic use and export
3) Establishment of local supply forests to provide for the local community the essential needs of timber, fuelwood and others.
4) Conservation of pasture lands
New forest law of 1992 includes 13 chapters and 58 sections with emphasis on forest reservation and protection, management of forest land, establishment of wood-based industry and administrative action apropos offences and penalties which may enhance people‟s participation in forest management and development of private sector.
Protection of Wildlife, Wild plants and conservation of Natural Areas Law, 1994 which replaced the former Burma Wildlife Protection Act of 1936, highlights maintenance and reforestation of habitats, protection of endangered and rare species of fauna and flora, establishment of new parks and protected areas and establishment of buffer zone management.
1. PROTECTION of soil, water, wildlife, bio-diversity, and environment.
2. SUSTAINABLITY of forest resources to ensure the perpetual supply of both tangible and intangible benefits accrued from the forest for the present and future generation.
3. BASIC NEEDS of the people for fuel, shelter, food and recreation.
4. EFFICIENCY to harness, in the socio-environmentally friendly manner, the full economic potential of the forest resources.
5. PARTICIPATION of the people in the conservation and utilization of the forests.
6. PUBLIC AWARENESS about the vital role of the forest in the well being and socio-economic development of the nation.
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According to field surveys, management strategies, rules and regulations promulgated during the past several decades have no tangible effects on the mangroves forests of the study area, except Meinmahla Island which is isolated from dense human settlement.
(a)
(b)
(c)
Plate 4.1 a,b, c (a) Protection of Kadonkani Reserved Forest,
(b) Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary (Myaukthayar Camp)
(c) Warning Signboard of Bogalay Town
Source: Photographs taken by researcher (2013)
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4.3 The Role of Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry
The Forest Department was systematically organized in 1856 with the arrival of Dr. Dietrich Brandis in Myanmar where scientific forest management and systematic enumeration of forest resources were then initiated. After Myanmar was separated from India under the diarchy rule in January 1923, a separate Ministry of Forestry was formed. The Ministry was reformed as the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry in 1948, the year that independence was regained from British rule. The former Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry was reformed into the Ministry of Forestry and the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation respectively under the notification of No.17/92 dated 5.3.1992, issued by the State Law and Order Restoration Council and then, the Ministry of Forestry was reformed as the Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry by new government in 11.3.2011.
The Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MoECF) is composed of the Planning and Statistics, Forest Department, Dry Zone Greening Department, Myanmar Timber Enterprise, National Commission of Environmental Affairs.
Planning and Statistics Department
The department is responsible for evaluation and monitoring the implementation of the forest polices, production and work targets, short and long-term planning and the project achievements of the MoECF. The Department coordinates with other Departments and Enterprises within the MoECF on cases such as planning and statistics, international relations, business on wood-based industry, technical assistance from abroad and timber trade. The department is also responsible for evaluating and monitoring the implementation of planned targets of individual organizations under the Ministry. The activities of the department involve promotion of relations with international organizations, provision of assistance in the implementation of the projects by playing the role of liaison with other ministries and departments. It also initiates appropriate regulations and make regular reviews of the market situation.
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Forest Department
Kadonkani Reserved Forest
The total area of Kadonkani Reserved Forest is 60,506.27 ha (149,511 acres ), of which 32,382.43 ha (80,017 acres ) have been encroached, including Le land, small plots of garden and dhani lands and other means of encroachment. In 1983, 1,014.97 ha (2,508 acres of land was transferred to other departments with the arrangement of World Bank. The established tidal forest covers 5,827.60 ha (14,400 acres). The area under integrated resource management is 13,492.51 ha (33,340 acres) in which the tidal tree species grow well. The tree stands in compartment 49 (Byonehmwe Island) are in good condition, covering 1,509.10 ha (3,729 acres). Except 6,454.06 ha(15,948 acres) of water body, the remaining 1,009 acres are of degraded forest.
Plate 4.1 Sheaf of Paddy Fields at Malawt Village, Kadonkani Reserve Forest
Source: Photograph taken by researcher (Nov, 2011)
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Pyindaye Reserved Forest
Pyindaye Reserved Forest has an area of 76,841.76 ha (189,876 acres) of which 29,464.99 ha (72,808 acres) are encroached, particularly by conversion into agricultural land of which Le land encroachment is the most dominant with 25,686.36 ha (63,471 acres). With the arrangement of World Bank, 9,379.60 ha (23,177 acres) of land were transferred to other departments for growing rice. The communal forest area, established by FREDA is 871.30 ha (2,153 acres). The area occupied by water body is 4,418.45 ha (10,918 acres).The remaining forest area is 32,815.86 ha (81,088 acres) of which over 4,046.94 ha (10,000 acres) are still vegetated with fairly good stands and they are found mostly in compartments 60,61,62,63,64, and 65. Over 8,093.88 ha (20,000 acres) bear no trees, being inn land and the remaining 12,140.83 ha (30,000 acres) are of degraded forests scattering widely along the lowlying stream banks. Being part of the deltaic region, the streams develop as a complex network and thus waterway is the only means of transport.
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(a)
(b)
(c)
Plate 4.2 a,b,c (a) Paddy Fields at Hayman Village , Paddy Field at
Daminnaung Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest
(b) Pyindaye Reserve Forest
(c) Sea Sesame, Daminnaung Village, Pyindaye Reserve Forest
Source: Photographs taken by researcher (January, 2013)
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Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary
Meinmahla Reserved Forest is protected primarily as a sanctuary for wildlife and for biodiversity conservation, and limited to forest land uses with no villages and settlements. There are 15 forest compartments, 7 Forest Department camps and 2 crocodile nurseries. Meinmahla Reseved Forest has an area of 13,670 ha (33,779 acres).Basically, protected activities have been prohibited since 1990. Nearly all of the mangrove forests are classified as dense forest with crown density higher than 70%. High stature stands (height above 12m or 39.6 feet) are prominent in inland compartments (11, 13, 14, and 15) of the reserved forest.
Heritiera fomes (Kanazo), Avicennia (Thame), Sonneratia (Kanbala) and Rhizophora (Byu) species are physiognomically a dominant mangrove species, particularly in the medium ground levels and along the low-lying riverbanks and stream banks. In elevated or higher land areas of the riverbanks, Phonenix paludosa (Thinbaung), Hibiscus tiliaceus, (Thinban) and Brownlowia tersa (Yethaman) are the physiognomically dominant mixed species. Existing Avicennia (Thame) are mostly in timber size.
Before it was designated as a protected area in 1990, the Meinmahla Reserved Forest was subjected to cutting for poles and piles, charcoal production, fuelwood collection, and conversion into paddy fields. In the early 1990s, this reserved forest was dominated by small size trees, and open land areas from former paddy fields were scattered. Stricter protection measures were imposed after declaration as a wildlife sanctuary in 1994, and the Meinmahla Reserved Forest is currently vegetated by pole-size to timber size mangrove trees. Apparently, this reserved forest has been protected affectively. Source: JICA, 2008
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(a) (b)
(c)
Plate: 4.3 a,b,c (a) Myauktayar Aungtheikdi Pagoda and within Meinmahla
Wildlife Sanctuary
(b) Myauktayar Camp at Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary,
Bogalay Township
(c) Meinmahla Wildlife Sanctuary (Post-Nargis)
Source: Photograph taken by researcher (January, 2013)
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4.4 The Role of NGOs Activities
The role played by the non-governmental organizations has become more significant after the Cyclone Nargis. Because of the destructive storm, natural resources, biologically diverse plant and animal species, occupational works and basic essentials of the coastal area of the Ayeyarwady deltaic regions were seriously and widespreadly destroyed. For the reforestation of mangrove forests and rehabilitation of environment in Bogalay Township, a group of NGOs formed „Mangrove and Environmental Rehabilitation Network (MERN) including FREDA, ECCDI, EcoDev, EKTA, SVSA, SDF, NAG, BDA, UNDP/FAO, and JICA.
Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA)
FREDA was founded in January 1996, by a group of forestry professionals. FREDA‟s main goals: Forest and natural environment development and conservation, wildlife protection, rural community development, disaster risk reduction, promotion of sustainable land use cooperation in sustainable forest management and human resource development in forestry environment science. Since the post-Nargis period FREDA has been carrying out 23 projects in Ayeyarwady Region on land management. In Bogalay Township, community forests were established in Daminnaung Village, Didoke Island and Lawkadat Island, occupying over 6,000 hectares (14,826 acres) which have proved successful.
FREDA: According to the Master Plan, (1999 to 2031) period, areas to be established as Departmental and community forestry plantations as well as protected natural or secondary forests in the Ayeyarwady mangroves may be stated in the following Table 4.
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Table 4.1 Areas to be established as plantations or protected forests during the Master Plan period for the Ayeyarwady Mangroves
Region/
Township
Initial Mangrove
Reserve Forest
Area(ha)
Area already
protected and
established as
plantations up
to 1998-99(ha)
Target areas of the plan(ha)
Total area already
established & still to be
established
(3+4+5+6)
Percentage established
after the Master Plan period
Departmental
Plantations
(ha)
Protected
areas
(ha)
Community
Forestry
Plantations
(ha)
Ayeyarwady Region
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Bogalay Township
151,228
33,362
10,117
19,577
6,070
69,126
46
Laputta Township
101,619
9,901
15,205
22,193
10,117
57,416
57
Mawlamyinekyun Tsp.
21,948
361
Nil
Nil
2,023
2,384
10.86
Total
274,795
43,624
25,322
41,770
18,210
128,926
Source: Master Plan on Forestry Plantation for the period 1999-2031, submitted by the FREDA to the Forest Department in 1999
Ecosystem Conservation and Communication Development Initative (ECCDI) specializes in community forest. It established community forests in Byantgyigone Village and Nyaungtabin Village in Laputta Township, Tebinseik Village and Wargon Village in Pyapon Township with 1481 members, covering 705 hectares (1,741.50 acres), but it does not involve in the rehabilitation work of Bogalay Township.
Economically Progressive Ecosystem Development (EcoDev): participates in the establishment of wind break, river bank plantation, community forests, and enhancement of natural regeneration, development of mangrove friendly aquaculture and environmental awareness raising and capacity building. In 2010, it involved in work relating to reserved, protected public forest and gap planting in natural forest, covering 40 hectares ( 98.84 acres)in Meinmahlakyun of Bogalay Township.
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Envir-Kleen Technologist’s Association (EKTA): was founded to solve these problems (Catastrophic Cyclone Nargis Disaster) and introduce and apply the EM (Effective Microorganism) Technology for Bioremediation in the disaster area.
EKTA implemented „Feasibility Study for Desalination of Seawater and Environmental Conservation in Mangrove Forest Area Project in the 5 villages of Bonegyikone Village Tract in Laputta Township, offering „Formation of Water Desalination Training for Water and Sanitation and Environmental Activities and Training. The project period was from 1.6.2011 to 31.11.2011. EKTA conducted pond rehabilitation, water and sanitation development, desalination of sea water and Nipa Palm Plantation for related production in Mangrove Area of Ayeyarwady Region.
Social Vision Services Association (SVSA) specializes in disaster risk reduction and disaster preparedness as well as psychosocial support in the aftermath of disasters. SVSA is providing service under Pyoe Pin Programme to implement the Mangrove Conservation on Awareness Raising through Demonstration Nursery Project. The project activities in Aungchanthar village of Setsan village tract in Bogalay Township include establishment of mangrove nursery, mangrove tree planting and awareness rising.
Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association (BANCA), an NGO established in 2004, is engaged in conservation of forest, the environment, and rare animal species including birds and marine creatures.
BANCA is implementing the rehabilitation of mangroves mainly through Community Forestry approach in Ayeyarwady Region.
Swanyee Development Foundation (SDF) is a National NGO founded in June,2006. SDF is building natural resources back better to create a more productive, safe and sustainable environment. Mangrove is vital role to reduce disaster risk by restoring environmental services of flood mitigation.
SDF takes the responsibility of the implementation of environmental conservation and biodiversity conservation sector in establishing community forest in 8 village of the western part of Meinmahlakyun in Bogalay Township as part of the MEAL‟s project.
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Nargis Action Group (NAG) committed to the sustainable development efforts not only in Delta, but also in regions which has been facing food and livelihood in security NAG has been implementing livelihood and governmance project in three main regions of Myanmar Delta region, Dry zone and Hilly region. NAG is carrying out part of MEALs project in establishing community forest in 8 villages of the eastern part of Meinmahlakyun.
Border Area Development Association (BDA) established in 1996 and main activities are health and education supporting activities in border areas, livelihood support in Nargis affected area, awareness raising for environmental conservation. BDA under Pyoe Pin Programme, has carried out the Rehabilitation and Restoration of Mangrove and Livelihood Project in Pinlactain Village, Leikkabar Village and Danoanseik Village during the period from 1.2.2011 to 31.1.2012, including activities in the formation of villages supervision committees, planting 24,000 mangrove saplings, covering 8.1 hectares (20 acres), small livestock distribution and revolving fund and training on management and livestock.
Metta Development Foundation (MDF) has established since post-Nargis, a total of about 635 ha (1,569.1 acres) of mangrove species in the Ayeyarwady delta for rehabilitation.
MSN (Mangrove Service Network) is an organization outside the umbrella of „MERN‟ and it has provided assistance since 2001 in environmental conservation and rural development programmes.
2002: Socio-economic survey for JICA mangrove study project
- Soil analysis for JICA mangrove study project
2003: Natural condition survey in Community Forestry area for JICA project
- Household survey on village participation in Community Forestry program
2004: Consultancy service on fishery activities of FAO project in Northern Rakhine
state
- Consultancy service on fishery activities of JICA project in Ayeyarwady
2005: Provision services in Emergency assistance for TSUNAMI affected families
project of FAO
- Organized a Community Forestry collaboration with Ahma Village
2005-2010: Aima village, compartment No.65,Pyinalan Reserved Forest, Laputta
Township, AYWD Region
- Targeted area- 1538 ha (3,800 acres) User group members (320) members
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Activities to be implemented:
(a) Protection-1143.5 ha (2,825.58 acres)
(b) Plantation- 264.3 ha (653.08 acres)
(c) Research Trail 82.7 ha ( 204.35 acres)
Ecological Mangrove Restoration
(d) Seed Production Area 84.2 ha (208.05 acres)
(e) Extension and Education Center
(f) Development of Village Livelihood
(small scale fishery, livestock, home industry)
MSN is supported receiving from two Japanese NGOs (ACTMANG and JICA) for expansion of community forestry in the area to support more for delta community establishments. (Source:www.earthisland-org/map/map.htm.downloadeddate, 28.7.12, www.msn. org (downloaded date, 28.7.12) MSN Office Yangon and Bogalay)
Organizations related to UNDP/FAO, other foreign agencies and NGOs have involved in the following work for the implemetnaiton of sustainable National Work Plan in Ayeyarwady Delta:
UNDP/FAO (1992) : Feasibility Studies on Mangrove Reforestation,
Ayeyarwady
UNDP/FAO (1994) : Community Development in Ayeyarwady Mangroves
UNDP/FAO (1998) : Food Security, Income generation and Environmental
Development, Ayeyarwady
The above-mentioned organization provided the necessary plant saplings, management techniques and technical and material assistance. In addition, they also assisted in promoting environment saving measures such as popularization of benefits of mangroves, mangrove ecosystem sustainable fishery practices and introduction of efficient cooking stove to reduce the fuel wood production from mangroves.
UNDP and FAO have initiated programmes to improve the livelihoods of community and environment through community participation in cooperation with government ministries. Mangrove reforestation was a major activity in environmental rehabilitation in 2008 and continued in 2009 under UNDP‟s post-Nargis reforestation strategy. The strategy focuses on the establishment of nurseries, incorporating four types of tree planting activities – public tree planting, agro-forestry, private forestry and community forestry. In 2009, some 1.07 million fresh water seedlings were
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produced, and an additional 500,000 mangrove seedlings were grown and planted in villages in the saline zone of the delta.
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) was established in 1974 and it has become top donor of the world since 1991. It has assisted Myanmar since 1981.When Ayeyarwady Delta was hard hit by the Storm Nargis, it immediately dispatched emergency supplies and a medial team to help the victims. As long-term project, together with Forest Department, it helps rehabilitate the devastated mangrove forests in the Ayeyarwady Delta. JICA has involved in mangrove forest conservation project in Bogalay Township since 2005, and it provided the largest amount of financial assistance after Nargis among the international organizations.
Profile of MEALs Project in Bogalay: Bogalay Township is one of the Cyclone affected township in Ayeyarwady. There are three mangrove forest reserves in Bogalay Township, namely Pyindaye, Kadondani and Meinmahla Reserve Forest. Local people mainly rely on these mangrove forest reserves and fishing for their livelihood. Thus, MERN formulated a project proposal, namely MEALs, to conserve the Meinmahla Reserve Forest to assist the livelihood and capacity development of the surrounding local community. Finally, 16 villages around the Meinmahla Island were selected as project villages:
- Awareness raising events were held in 16 project villages, about 2 times per village.
- According to the discussion points from awareness raising, the following findings were recognized.
- Local people understood the objectives and direction of the MEALs project
- Landless people also wanted to plant the mangrove trees and
- Some of them want to establish community forestry, but with their relatives, not with others.
- Local communities were much aware on conservation and rehabilitation of mangroves, climate change, and disaster risk reduction
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4.5 The Role of Community Forestry
In 1995, Forest Department of Myanmar (MoECF) promulgated the legal instructment of (CFI) Community Forestry Instruction in order to promote the people participation in forest management by means of granting legal rights to the community for managing tree and forest land that are traditionally belonged to them. Since CFI was born, community forestry activity has been implemented by forest department and various development projects of UNDP/FAO, JICA and INGOs.
There are three approaches for recovering forests in Bogalay area, namely Public Tree Planning, Private Forestry and Community Forestry. All these approaches will be conducted through participation of local people.
Under public forestry approach, road side, coastal belt, riverbank and schools will be included for establishment of plantation with suitable mangrove or non-mangrove species. Spacing and planting techniques will depend on site factors and growth behavior of species that are intended to plant.
Private Forestry will be done by assisting technology and seeds and seedlings to those who are interested. Plantation will be established on the lands permitted by MoECF (FD) and Settlement and Land Record Department (SLRD). By encouraging private forestry it is assumed that forest plantation by private would support Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in a certain extent.
Knowing that, Annawarkyaw Mangrove Greening Group with 22 interested members initiated their move to planting mangrove, by hiring 2569.80 ha (6,350 acres) of land with 30 year extractive right at degraded plots and abandoned prawn raising ponds in compartment No.62 of Pyindaye Reserve. Thamae tidal tree species have been planting since 2010 to create locally dependable private community forest plantation.
The main objectives of the group are: to satify the local need for firewood, poles,piles and timber, to get more income by selling the forest products, upgrade education, health and other social infrastructures by the revenue gained from the forest products and to help moderate the climatic condition through expanded green cover.
Community Forestry is the one kind of forest establishment and conservation by the local community. This method is very effective to the local community for poverty alleviation.
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People participation in forestry sector is stressed and explicitly declared as the fifth imperative of Myanmar‟s forest policy are as follows:
“Enlisting people‟s participation in forestry, wildlife and national park activities so that the community becomes actively involved in appropriate ways in national local efforts towards forest conservation and development, and in raising trees for meeting their needs and increasing non-farm incomes through adoption of community forestry agro-forestry practices.”(Win Maung, 2002)
The concept comprises of three main elements:
1) Firewood and other goods essential to meeting basic needs at the rural household and community levels
2) Environmental stability that supports sustainable and continued food production
3) Income and employment generations in the rural community
Community forestry has the following characteristics:
- the local community controls a clearly and legally defined area of forest
- the local community is free from governmental and other outside pressure concerning the utilization of community forest
- the community forestry involves commercial sale of surplus timber or other products
- the community is free from economic exploitation of markets or other pressure from outer forces
- the community has long-term security of 30-year land use right, which is also extendable
The essence of CF is that the basic needs of the rural community must be satisfied
(Source: ITTO, 2002)
In 1995, the Forest Department issued instructions by which private community forest can be established that ensured right of 30 years for forestry activity and tree tenure to the communities and user groups. The local inhabitants of Bogalay Township has experienced both the positive effect of the presence of mangrove forest and the negative effect of for being lack of mangrove forest.
E.g. A great number of farmers, fishermen and others in Kyunthayar Village Tract lost their lives and property by the strong impact of Cyclone Nargis, while that of Meinmahlakyun survived due to the presence of thick mangroves.
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Procedures for Establishing Community Forest
Step 1- Holding a village mass meeting at which objectives, the activities, principles, rights, advantages and the responsibilities for community Forestry are presented and discussed
Step 2- Holding the second meeting, organizing the CF User Groups, selecting the Executive Committee, the Revision of the rules and principles of CF
Step 3- Selecting and demarcating Community Forestry
Step 4- Submitting the Community Forest Establishment Proposal
Step 5- Boundary Demarcation of Community Forest
Step 6- Writing up and submitting the management plan (ITTO, 2002)
Community Forests can be established in the following areas:
a) With the permission of the government, on reserved forest, unclassed forest, protected forest and land at the disposal of the State
b) Village owned fuelwood plantations established with the permission of the Director General (DG) of the MoECF
c) With the permission of the owner (s) on private owned land or land owned by government organizations or non-government organizations
Community Forests will be permitted to establish in the following land categories:
a) In degraded natural forests where natural regeneration is difficult
b) In areas where there is potential to meet the local demand for forest products
c) Areas suitable for the establishment of CF and where there is need to conserve soil and water resources
d) Natural forests which for various reasons should be managed by the local community
e) Forest lands traditionally managed by the local community (Ohn,2002)
The Role of MoECF (FD) for the establishment
A success of CF highly depends on the cooperation of involving agencies such as MoECF (FD), local authorities, and the supporting organization. MoECF (FD) is a key agency because the CF is executed in line with the CFI issued by MoECF (FD). The majority of this department‟s activities are implemented through community:
a) seeds and seedlings necessary for the establishment of CF for the first rotation
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b) working practices; both in terms of providing the technical assistance, expertise necessary for the establishment, cultural operation, management and utilization of CF so as to attain sustainable development.( awareness raising, forest boundary delinearion, mapping, inventory, management planning and establishment support, paperwork regarding application for certificate; as well as post formation support.)
Forest Users’ Groups (Community Based Organizations)
The key local institutions in CF are the FUGs, which are community based organizations (CBOs) which establish and manage community forests (CFs). They are the on-site managers of forests surrounding them whilst their daily life and forest resources are tightly coupled together.
The Role of Environmental NGOs
All environmental NGOs have strong commitments to the rehabilitation of mangrove forests in the delta region. They have their own agenda and approaches for the rehabilitation of mangrove forest by the Cyclone Nargis. They focus on the conservation of the environment and rehabilitation of mangrove resources through different approaches including establishment of CF plantations, creation of livelihood options, establishment of mangrove plantations, and implementation of agroforestry practices.
A number of NGOs, namely FREDA, ECCDI, EcoDev, MSN, NAG, SDF and other MERN‟s umbrella organizations have also been establishing CFs in Bogalay area. Since the post-Nargis period FREDA has been carrying out 23 projects in Ayeyarwady Region on land management. In Bogalay Township, community forests were established in Daminnaung village, Didoke island and Lawkadat island, occupying over 6000 hectares (14,826 acres) which have proved successful.
The Role of Donar Supported CF projects
The main donar project supported CF projects are as follows: United Nations Development Progarmme (UNDP): since 1994, UNDP has played a major role in complementing the overall rural development and food security effort in an environmentally sustainable manner through its Human Development Initiative (HDI) programme.(especially Ayeyarwady Region, Southern Shan State and Dry Zone).
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Japan International Cooperation Agency to conduct „ The study on Integrated Mangrove Management through Community Participation in the Ayeyarwady Delta and to formulate an integrated mangrove management plan (IMMP), with a total project period of 40 years starting from 2005 with the overall goal of establishing “ coexistence of vivid mangrove vegetation and people‟s lives in the study area through the rehabilitation of degraded mangrove forests and livelihood improvement of the local people by various community forest activities under the authorization of the Community Forestry Instruction. The implementation of this holistic plan will contribute much to improve the natural environment and socio- economic situation in the study area.
UK Government Department for International Development Pyoe Pin: the Pyoe Pin Programme supported CF activities through EcoDev and (Local NGOs). Forest Resource Environment Development and Conservation Association (FREDA): FREDA has been implementing mangrove reforestation project phase by phase in AYWD Delta since 1999 incooperation with Action for Mangrove Reforestation (ACTMANG) of Janpan. During Phase I and II, the project has, among other activities, established 3,193.84 ha (7,892 acres) of mangrove CF complying with the CFI issued by the FD in 1995. The 5-year phase II of the project has been in operaton starting from 2009 in Ahmar Sub- township, Pharpon District in Ayeyarwady. It is clear that donars have played a key role in investing resources and efforts to promote community forestry and develop the capacity of the local FUGs.(ECCDI,2011)
Challenges in implementation of community: are more labour and time for site preparation due to thickness of bushes, weeds, climbers etc., illegal cutting in community forests, and encroachment into community forests for the purposes of agriculture and shrimp farming and pest attack on Sonnertia apetala (Kanbala) which is fast growing species.
Although the project activities were generally assisted by MoECF (FD), it was found that the drawback in supervision of low-level staff especially in the dispute of land tenure and allocation of the land, the illegal cutting of community plantations, the actions on the FUG‟s members who do not follow the management plan, cooperation with the villagers in forestry extension are the constraints still to be
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overcome. Some local inhabitants and administrators, in fact, take no interest in communal forest and thus scenes of cattle and buffalo herding, and people searching for shrimp and crab are not uncommon in the community plantation areas. It is important to end conflicts between different types of land use. Anyhow, priority should be given to the land-use type of mangrove forests all along the coastal area of the Ayeyarwady Delta. Illegal land use must be stopped completely by taking proper actions to those who breach the rules, otherwise the agriculture land would swallow up the remining valuable mangroves.
Conflicts of Landuse: The conflict occurs between three main strata viz paddy growing farmers, fishermen including crab collectors and the forest plantation user group members.
Paddy growers need water to be stored in the reservoir, dam or streams to use for their paddy fields for sound and vigorous seeding. The fishermen, on the other hand, need these waters to be flowed without any interruption for fish, prawn and crabs. In this tidal area, during the high tides, stream or river water reach into the community forest plantation on the higher grounds and the mud crab collectors intruded into these plantation areas and stepping on the seedlings and up-rooting seedlings or cutting tree branches for crab traps. These are the major conflicts still to be addressed and resolved by the village authorities, project personnel and the MoECF (FD). If necessary, the other agencies such as Agriculture and Irrigation Department, Land Settlement Department and Fisheries Department should also be consulted. (Ohn, 2002)
Solutions to overcome the challenges technical advice and financial assistance from the project to conduct the site preparation, setting up of warning signboards to prevent illegal cutting and encroachment into CFs, announcement of establishment of CFs and making a request to local firewood cutters to avoid encroachment and illegal cutting in CFs, education on illegal cutters and making pledge not to commit the illegal cutting again, taking action on illegal cutters who do not follow their pledge with the assistance of MoECF (FD), Police Department and local authority and removal of trees attacked by pests and re-establishment of mixed plantation.(Source:FAO,2009)
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Availability of job opportunity: FUG members were subsidized with rice, cash and other required materials for community plantations during the project period. It was a partial job opportunity for the villagers during the implementation time. After felling the trees with exploitable girth, planting activities will be succeeded continuously. Moreover, the finished products will be produced if the existing market demands are possible.
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CHAPTER V
FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS AND DISCUSSIONS
The mangrove forest in Ayeyarwady Region is the widest and largest in area if compared with that of other parts of the country. However, it has been depleting at an accelerated rate, due to increased local need for timber leading to illegal and overcutting, the extension of paddy land, the conversion of the degraded area into fish and prawn ponds and salterns, combined with improper means of fishing, reduction of nutrients for the rapid growth of mangroves, destruction by natural hazards and weak enforcement of rules and regulations prescribed for the protection of the mangrove ecology.
Unfortunately, the strong and destructive storm Nargis lashed the southern part of Ayeyarwady Region in 2008, leaving a great number of people dead, trees uprooted including mangrove forest of Bogalay Township.
There are three mangrove forest reserves, of which only Meinmahla Reserve remains in good condition. The 2010 image reveals broad area of yellow color band indicating paddy fields once covered with thick mangrove species in Pyindaye and Kadonkani reserves. Only small mangrove plantations established after Cyclone Nargis appears in the images.
The large scale depletion of mangrove forests in the study area in the past several decades was mainly due to overcutting of the locales. Being poor and lack of alternative jobs, the majority of the local inhabitants depend heavily on the mangroves, for their survival. The income obtained from the forest spent for food, clothing, shelter, education, health and social formalities. This clearly indicates that poverty alleviate the most urgent task to be carried effectively by any possible means.
In the past, the importance of mangrove forests to the coastal inhabitants was less obvious due to low population pressure and limited environmental and ecological knowledge. The growing awareness of the importance of mangrove forests among the environmentalists worldwide and then the locales through various media has prompted the conservation of the forests including that of the study area. In addition, the Cyclone Nargis appeared as the concrete proof of the forest which served as strong barrier against the disasterous sea surge during powerful storm. Most local
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inhabitants now realize the importance of the existence of thick mangrove forest, but they have to cut the trees for their livelihood, as they can barely earn from other sources.
The demand for fuel hightened with the increasing population. Bogalay charcoal produced from Myinga and Kanazo species has been well-known to the housewives. By experiences the local inhabitants know the relationship between the mangrove forest and fish, prawns and crabs, but have no in-depth comprehensive understanding of the interaction between the mangrove ecology and marine lives. Before storm Nargis, no educative campaign was launched to the locales by any organizations or the authorities concerned.
Cyclone Nargis
Just by implementing resources and land management policy may not achieve the conservation of mangrove forest, as proved by storm Nargis which is one of the destructive natural disasters.
Prevention of natural disaster, in fact much more difficult in practice. Even though it is less impossible to control, it can be, to some extent, reduced by all possible preventive measure. First of all, it should be seriously considered to relieve the heavy dependence of the local inhabitants on the mangrove forest. The authorities concern should concentrate on job creation, food security, suitable shelter, sufficient safe and potable drinking water, establishment of wind barrier and training for environmental conservation as well. Only multifarious measures will result in the reduction of the negative impact of natural disaster and human induced destruction of the mangrove forests.
There should be laws and regulations at national level to protect the existing mangrove forests and monitoring the ever changing environmental conditions of the forests is also necessary.
According to field survey, the majority of inhabitants living in the storm-struck area are poor and can barely make both ends meet. And thus they have to borrow money from the money-lenders at high interest rate. Sometimes they cannot repay in the next season and even to borrow other time, increasing debt burden and cannot relieve from the vicious circle. In Ayeyarwady Region, 50 percent of peasant families, 20 percent of fishing families and 30 percent landless families are in poverty, depending on farmlands irregular random job.
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Agricultural Sector
The proximate to the mangrove forest area are high salinity and thus yield per unit area is low. With low inputs, and less scientific method of farming, rice growers often witness loss due to low yield. Some have abandoned farms which turn into salterns.
Due to successive erosion during the past several decades, the embankments constructed in the 1970-1980 period for growing plan crop Yakyaw (1) and Yakyaw (2), have been broken and collapsed in places. These embankments were built to prevent the rice fields from being flooded and invaded by tidal saltwater with the assistance of World Bank.
The destruction of mangrove forests enhances the rate of bank collapse. Therefore it demands large amount of capital to prevent tidal floods and high soil salinity. Most farms are now not favourable even to grow saltwater resistant paddy species. In addition, the local inhabitants in the mangrove environment have to face water shortage problem, as the existing pond and well waters have become more and more contaminated or dry up in the hot dry season. The available water in the costal villages of Bogalay Township is high in salinity and thus not suitable for drinking. The locales need more money to spend for acquiring potable water. For most families of the area, summer is a season of low income. Therefore, they have to turn to the cutting of mangroves, escalating the depletion of the forest.
(a) (b)
Plate 5.1 a,b Water, insufficient safe during summer To get to stand in line for
drinking water (Post-Nargis, every summer) (Hinterland of
Bogalay Myoma), at Ayeyarwady Delta
Source: International Organization for Migration (2009)
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Climate Change
Climate change in the Asia-Pacific area is manifested by high frequency of cyclonic storms, heavy rain, drought and temperature extremes which in turn affect the productive potential of the existing natural resources. The study area is not exempted from such negative effect. For instance, there has been more rainfall in 2012 in the deltaic region and widespread floodings destroyed more than 40,469.4 ha (100,000 acres) of paddy land. Temperatures were also above normal in the post-monsoon period. All such changes affect the growth of mangrove species and therefore the authorities concerned should embark upon grand afforestation schemes to have tidal forests wide enough to resist the impact of high wind and sea charge.
Community Forestry
In order to somewhat relieve heavy dependence on mangrove forest for firewood and charcoal the authority concerned encourage the establishment of community forest with the cooperation of local administrators and local people. Although the programme was laid down since 1995, the actual implementation started only after the storm Nargis struck the area, in cooperation between local people and UN agencies (UNDP, FAO, JICA, LNGOs, INGOs, and NGOs) as well as national donors.
According to field survey, FD, NGOs and local inhabitants have the same opinions on determination of location, ecological productivity, and compartment creation, initiation, technology and labour. FD perceives that, CFI can not cope with some problems in implementing the programme. These are:
- Inadequate training/experience and understanding of forestry staff on concept and process of CF
- Insufficient facilities for the implementation of CF
- Project intervention of local NGOs, INGOs and UN is sometimes beyond necessity, especially project inputs and attempt to conduct through incompetent groups
- Difficulty in building of mutual trust between FD and community due to doubt on 30 year land tenure right.
Within the study area, patches of forest land and vacant land are encroached by the landless poor families and over time the number of illegal settlement have increased and it becomes an issue which is difficult to settle. Land use problem is also
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manifested by highly competitive activities such as forestry, agriculture and fish/prawn culture.
UN agencies and NGOs have some issues relating to inadequate information, poor coordination among the stakeholders, limited techniques and finance. Therefore workshop and seminars should be held by cost sharing approach among NGOs, FUGs and certain stakeholders to develop a well informed CF networking. Donors should participate in field visit so as to know the true picture of the area concerned and to have actual information which is worth sharing.
For the forest user group, the big challenge is limited support which benefit only to some local populace. The limited success in the establishment of CF is also attributable to poor awareness of CF by FUG. Moreover, site preparation for CF is more labour –intensive and time-consuming and hence large amount of capital investment, to remove the existing thick bushes, weeds and climbers. In some cases, there has been incidence of cutting the newly planted saplings and ploughing the land concerned for agriculture or shrimp farming. Pests are other restraints which often cut off the young tender saplings.
According the existing forest law paddy cultivation is not allowed within the area specified for reforestation. However, much of the area is filled with paddy fields.This reveal the weak low enforcement of the authorities concerned.
In implementing the reforestation of mangrove forests for shielding the coastal area from the strong impact of sea charge and high wind, such factors as central location, accessibility, topography, soil condition, water level, labour, vegetation, and altitude are all to take consideration for the determination of sites for nursery bed.
Despite the above-mentioned weaknesses, the reforestation programme is very much likely to be successful in the near future if the locales and authorities concerned cooperate with local and foreign NGOs who are ready to contribute financial, technical and material assistance.
Suggestions and Discussions
Reforestation and conservation of mangrove forest constitute cross- sectoral issues and thus it requires a multi-displinary effort to achieve the objectives. The policies for implementation tasks should be synchronized with the basic physical geographic factors and social factors of the areas concerned. For sustainable
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development the forests constant care and effective maintenance programme are inevitable.
Based on Landsat image taken in 1989, 2000 and 2010 for change detection of mangrove forest, 57,345.64 hectares (141,701.07 acres) of dense mangroves have been turned into sparse mangroves, paddy fields or other landuse types in Bogalay Township within the past 20 years.
The interest in reforestation of mangrove was low among the local inhabitants and the authorities concerned as well. After Cyclone Nargis, this proved the forest as an effective barrier against the invasion of sea surge and strong wind, the government, UN, NGOs, universities and other organization and agencies take great interest in highlighting the requirements for regeneration, rehabilitation, and conservation of the valuable tidal forest.
For the sustainable management of the forest, there must be transparency, monitoring and accountability together with concrete land use policy and land use management strategy. To be able to handle it effectively detailed data and information are necessary.
The law enforcement to those who breach the law is rather weak. For instance, when an illegal mangrove cutter is caught at hand, it is settled usually with corrupted money, Ks 3,000 for a full load of boat. Such corruption is so widespread and earns much money that salary offered with US dollar by a certain NGO has been turned down.
According to field surveys, a number of land plots of the mangrove area are under complex land use pattern, unable to identify whether a certain plot is under the management of Forest Department or Fishery Department or Agriculture Department.
Within a small space of land, there are paddy fields, salt pans, shrimp firms and patches of mangroves. Such complex land use pattern hinders the land management effectiveness.
The current practice of top-down system by the government officials is less effective, as the individuals at the higher step of the ladder may not know the detailed and true picture of the intricate mangrove ecology. Instead, bottom-up system should be introduced and checked by occasional visit to the different parts of the area concerned.Local community participation is necessary in implementing poverty alleviation without affecting mangrove ecology.
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The establishment of community forest is a long-term 30-year plan. For successful implementation, the local communities, development agencies international funding organizations and FD must work together harmoniously. At present, MoECF and Planning and Statistics Department focus on the reforestation of mangrove forest in Meinmahla Island which is one of the wildlife sanctuaries of Myanmar.
In the post-Nargis period over 60 groups including UN,NGOs and INGOs, have been getting involved in the rehabilitation of mangrove ecology in the Ayeyarwady deltaic region, including the study area. It is highly beneficial to the local inhabitants the emergence of NGOs grouping like „Mangrove Environment Rehabilitation Network(MERN) in which Mangrove Empowerment and Livelihood Security for Environmental and Biodiversity Conservation (MEALs) can give all-round support without interruption for sustainable mangrove ecosystem and livelihood security the locales.
The main challenge for mangrove rehabilitation project is the availability of sufficient financial assistance. There are several organizations that provide funds to the least developed countries for poverty alleviation and environmental management of natural resources. The funds received from the donor countries and private organizations should be used effectively through transparency and accountability.
Population is one of the critical factors in the implementation of mangrove rehabilitation scheme. At the same time man-induced activities are the chief factors of mangrove forest degradation and depletion. As no complete population census has been taken since 1983, the actual number of population within the mangrove environment and the growth rate are not known. Being a long-term project, it is necessary to estimate the number of population in the years to come, so as to be able to the basic requirements of the people living in and around the mangrove area.
Until and unless, the problems related to overcutting, encroachment of other types of land use, weak law enforcement and corruption, the successful rehabilitation of mangrove forest within the study area in the foreseenable future would remain illusive.
Discussions
Mangroves are distributed world wide in all continents with tropical and subtropical coasts and occur in 124 countries and territories. FAO (2007) estimates a total area for mangroves of 15.6 to 19.8 million hectares.The northern extension limits
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of mangroves are in Japan (31ºN) and Bermuda (32ºN) and the southern extension limits are in South Australia (38ºS) and the east coast of South Africa (32ºS). (Tomlinson, 1986)
The following Table shows 15 countries that have mangrove forests, of which 6 countries are of Asian countries. Among the Asian countries, Indonesia has the largest area of mangroves in the world. There are 4 countries in Africa, one country in South America, 2 countries in North and Central America and 2 countries in the Oceania that have mangrove forests.
Table 5.1 The Fifteen most mangroves rich countries and their cumulative
percentages (2010)
Sr No.
Country
Area
(ha)
%of global total
Cumulative (%)
Region
1
Indonesia
3,112,989
22.6
22.6
Asia
2
Australia
977,975
7.1
29.7
Oceania
3
Brazil
962,683
7
36.7
S/America
4
Mexico
741,917
5.4
42.1
N&Central America
5
Nigeria
653,669
4.7
46.8
Africa
6
Malaysia
505,386
3.7
50.5
Asia
7
Myanmar
494,584
3.6
54.1
Asia
8
PapuaNew Guinera
480,121
3.5
57.6
Oceania
9
Bangladesh
436,570
3.2
60.8
Asia
10
Cuba
421,538
3.1
63.9
North & Central America
11
India
368,276
2.7
66.6
Asia
12
Guinea Bissau
338,652
2.5
69.1
Africa
13
Mozambique
318,851
2.3
71.4
Africa
14
Madagascar
278,078
2
73.4
Africa
15
Philippines
263,137
1.9
75.3
Asia
Source: USGS, (2010)
US Geological Survey (2010)
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In 2010, the largest extent of mangrove is found in Asia (42%) followed by Africa (20%), North and Central America (15%), Oceania (12%) and South America (11%).
Southeast Asian Mangroves: Southeast Asia is well endowed as it occupies the largest area of mangroves in the world originally extending over 6.8 million hectares and representing 34 to 42 percent of the world‟s total. The following table shows the mangrove areas of Southeast Asian countries in 1980,1990 and 2000. Except Thailand, the others witnessed decrease in mangrove forest area during the 1980-2000 period.
Table 5.2 Changes in Southeast Asian Mangroves Area (1980, 1990 and 2000)
Sr No.
Country
Mangrove Area (ha)
Name
1980
1990
2000
1980(%)
1990(%)
2000(%)
1.
Brunei Darussalam
18,300
17,300
16,300
0.27%
3.04%
0.33%
2.
Cambodia
83,000
74,600
63,700
1.22%
1.31%
1.30%
3.
Indonesia
4,254,000
3,530,700
2,930,000
62.50%
62.07%
59.79%
4.
Malaysia
669,000
620,500
572,100
9.83%
10.91%
11.67%
5.
Myanmar
531,000
480,000
432,300
7.80%
8.44%
8.82%
6.
Papua New Guinea
525,000
492,000
425,000
7.71%
8.65%
8.67%
7.
Philippines
206,500
123,400
109,700
3.03%
2.17%
2.24%
8.
Singapore
2,700
500
500
0.04%
0.01%
0.01%
9.
Thailand
285,500
180,559
244,161
4.19%
3.17%
4.98%
10.
Timor-leste
4,100
3,600
3,035
0.06%
0.06%
0.06%
11.
Vietnam
227,000
165,000
104,000
3.34%
1.84%
2.12%
Total
6,806,100
5,688,159
4,900,796
-
-
-
Source: Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia (2000)
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According to Table 5.2 the mangrove area of Myanmar is two times as large than that of Thailand, while Malaysia has better conservation schemes. By 1990, Thailand lost 100,000 hectares (247,100 acres) of mangrove forests. However, the country regained over 6,000 hectares (14,216 acres) of mangroves in 2000 in response to effective forest conservation measures.
The largest areas of Mangroves in Southeast Asia are found in Indonesia (almost 60% of Southeast Asia‟s total), Malaysia (11.7%), Myanmar (8.8%), Papua New Guinea (8.7%) and Thailand (5.0 %). Mangroves occur throughout Southeast Asia, from the Ayeyarwady Delta in Myanmar in the Northwest, and throughout Southeast Asia, more than (17,000) scattered islands of the Indonesian and Philippines archipelagos to Papua New Guinea in the East.Spanning a distance of more than 6,000 kilometres (3,728.23 miles)from east to west and 3,500 kilometres (2,174.8 miles) from north to south.
Myanmar: About 8.8 percent of Southeast Asia‟s mangroves are located in Myanmar, of which 46 percent is located in Ayeyarwady Region, 37 percent in Tanintharyi Region and 17 percent in Rakhine State. The total area of Mangroves was about 530,000 ha (1,309,630 acres) in 1980,but this had dropped to 425,000 ha (1,050,175 acres) by 2000. The mangroves in Myanmar are reported by some of the most degraded or destroyed mangrove systems in the Indo-Pacific region. Mangroves forests were destroyed or heavily damaged in the Cyclone Nargis that struck in May 2008.
Comparison of the present status of mangroves with neighbouring countries the table shows the comparison of the present status of mangroves in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly in the South-east Asian region.
Coastal habitats across the world are under heavy population and development pressure, and are subjected to frequent storms. The continued declines of the forests are caused by conversion to agriculture, aquaculture, tourism, urban development and over exploitation. As a consequence, important ecosystem goods and service (e.g. natural barrier, carbon sequestration, biodiversity) provided by mangrove forests will be diminished or lost.Source: FAO, 2007 (http:// www.arawaddy.org/artical.php?art-id=15969)
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The following Table 5.3 a and b shows the situation of mangroves in Bogalay Township and Ayeyarwady deltaic region. There are 3 reserved forests in Bogalay Township (Kadonkani, Meinmahla and Pyindaye), 3 reserve in Laputta Township (Kyagankwinbauk, Pyinalan and Kakayan) and 3 reserves in Mawlamyinekyun Township (Labutkwe, Kalayaik and Nyinaung).
Comparatively, Bogalay Township has wider mangrove land than the other two townships. Rate of mangrove depletion in Bogalay is low due to better management and effective conservation measures. However, rate of depletion was high in Mawlamyinekyun, being seriously destroyed by powerful Cyclone Nargis.
Table 5.3, a Reserved Forests in Bogalay Township (2005)
*Byonemhwekyun of kanazo forests are maintained and protected as natural forest
(1509 ha or 3729 acres) Source: Forest Department, 2005
Sr.No
Reserved Forest
Year of
establishment
Area
(ha)
Area
(acres)
No.of camp
Remarks
1
Kadonkani
1990
60,506
149,512
1 to 76
2
Meinmahla
1985
13,670
33,779
1 to 15
Declared as wildlife sancturary in 1994
3
Pyindaye
1990
76,842
189,879
1 to 66
4
Meinmahla
Extension(Lawkadat
Island)
78
193
5
Pyindaye
Extension(Didoke
Island)
132
327
Total
151,228
373,689
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Table 5.3 b Reserved Forests in Ayeyarwady Delta (acres) (1924, 1954, 1974, 1983,1990,1995,2001 & 2007)
Name of Reserved Forest
1924
1954
1974
1983
1990
1995
2001
2007
Mangrove still left in 2007 as % of 1924
Bogalay Township
Kadonkani
133,563
128,103
124,633
105,019
118,887
83,998
52,123
28,942
22%
Meinmahla
31,115
30,991
30,980
31,073
30,895
30,489
30,319
27,061
87%
Pyindaye
178,958
157,538
156,202
137,040
73,886
142,666
84,369
55,200
31%
Total
343,636
316,632
311,815
273,132
223,668
257,153
166,811
111,203
Laputta Township
Kyagankwinbauk
66,650
64,401
61,429
32,094
40,966
37,986
24,893
10,761
16%
Pyinalan
97,809
87,362
90,035
70,868
72,041
69,211
62,952
31,500
32%
Kakayan
66,471
66,095
66,431
57,249
42,034
29,552
19,317
7,196
11%
Total
230,930
217,858
217,895
160,211
155,041
136,749
107,162
49,457
Mawlamyinekyun Township
Labutkwe
12,846
7,304
6,055
1,969
0
1,669
1,432
39
0%
Kalayaik
21,345
21,295
18,686
6,046
811
1,378
1,020
232
1%
Nyinaung
16,465
16,398
16,465
9,272
11,991
228
181
0
0%
Total
50,656
44,997
41,206
17,287
12,802
3,275
2,633
271
Totals
625,222
579,487
570,916
450,630
391,511
397,177
276,606
160,931
Source: Forest Department, Yangon (2008)
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The proper channel for rehabilitation of mangrove forest in Myanmar depends on the establishment of community forests in cooperation between the government, UN agencies, NGOs, FD and local people.
The government policy that encourages the extension of agricultural land should not affect the areas with mangrove saplings planted after the storm as rehabilitation programme as well as the remaining mangrove areas.
Myanmar at present has only 20 percent of its original mangrove area, being destroyed by the local populace and natural disaster.
Mangrove forests potentially have high capacity to absorb carbondioxide. Therefore, it has become more important with the increasing adverse effects of global warming. To be able to conserve the remaining mangrove forests effectively, the necessary laws and regulations are being drawn by the personal concerned of the Environmental Conservation Department, High Court Office, FREDA, REAM, Ecology Conservation and Rural Development Organization, and BANCA, and it will be completed by the end of 2012.
According to thesis submitted to the Department of Geography, University of Yangon, by Kyaw Soe Win (1999), under the title of “A Geographical Study of Tidal Forest (Mangrove) Depletion”, Ayeyarwady Region had over 200,000 hectares (80,939 acres) of mangrove forests in 1999. At present the region has only a little over 100,000 hectares (247,100 acres) and thus it was decreased by about 100,000 hectares (247,100 acres) during 13 years. The planted mangrove saplings after storm Nargis are still young in age with limited canopy and thus they cannot be enumerated as dense mangroves.
Nay Win Oo(2002) in his dissertation on “ Deforestation to Mangrove Dweller in Ayeyarwady, Myanmar “ presented that deforestation of mangrove forests is related to local activities such as fishing, charcoal production, commercial nipa farming, perceptions of the dwellers and the issue of migration. The study period of the research work is from 1988 to 2002. During that period the deforestation of mangrove was enhanced by the encroachment of agricultural land over the mangrove area, and charcoal production, due to lack of use of mangrove forests and weak maintenance measures.
141
Aye Thin Mu (2006), presented a thesis on “Assessment of Land Cover Changes and their Impacts on the Environment and Mangrove Forests: A Case Study in Bogalay Township” According to the study mangrove forest area has contracted by 16.84 percent in the 10-year period from 1995 to 2005‟ or the mangrove forests have been disappering at the rate of 4878.38 ha (12054.49 acres) annually.
In 2000, the area had 39,995.3ha (98,829 acres) of mangroves and it declined by more than half to 19,614.73 ha (48,468 acres). At this rate, (unless necessary measures are taken to strictly conserve the forests), the mangrove area is likely to reduce to just over 8,094 ha (20,000 acres) in 2020 and the entire forest would disappear by 2030.
After the adoption of market-oriented economic policy, the regulations with regard to the mangrove forest conservation were not transparent and unknown to the local inhabitants. Although there were watchmen appointed by the Forest Department, the number was limited and hence unable to halt the illegal mangrove cutters, depleting the forests in terms of thousand of acres annually.
Ohnmar Myat Htoo (2008), in her research “ The Impacts of Economic Activities in Taungup Township”, highlights that degradation and depletion of mangrove forests are mainly due to economic activities such as agriculture, shrimp farming etc.
Likewise, the depletion of mangroves in Bogalay Township is mainly due to the encroachment of agriculture land, but not of shrimp farming.
Hnin Khaing Aye (2008) presented “ Sustainable Mangrove Forests Management: Wunbaik Area, Yanbye Township, Rakhine State”‟ highlighting the disappearance of mangrove forests by about 44 percent in the 15- year period from 1990 to 2005, mainly on account of widespread shrimp farming practice backed by the government and its so-called cronies or entrepreneurs .
At present, like Wunbaik, rehabilitation projects are being implemented in Bogalay Township, of which MEALs Project is the most active. Project on „Coastal Livelihood and Environmental Assets Restoration in Rakhine (CLEARR) is being implemented in 62 coastal villages of Gwa Township, Rakhine State.
142
Conclusion
The Myanmar Coastal Mangroves are some of the most degraded or destroyed mangrove systems in the Indo-Pacific. Ayeyarwady is one of the most heavily silted rivers in the world. The sedimentation rate of the Ayeyarwady River is the fifth highest in the world and 299 million tons per year. This is largely because of the deforestation that has occurred throughout central Myanmar. The mangroves have also been over exploited agriculture, aquaculture and development projects. The delta is composed largely of alluvium. Forest lands have been converted to agriculture and other development activities, not only in this ecoregion but throughout Myanmar.
Mangrove forest depletion and land use change within the Bogalay area are caused by the four main factors: (1) Economic factors (2) Policy factors (3) Demographic factors (4) Natural factors. In 1973, the population of Bogalay area was 230,623 persons which accounted for 5.49 percent of Ayeyarwady‟s total. It increased to 328,738 persons in 2010 representing 4.56 percent of the total population of the Ayeyarwady. The average growth rate is about 2 percent.
Thus, the highest concentration of people are found within the northern part of the township where a vast stretch of flat land suitable both for human settlement and agriculture, easy access to transportation routes. The larger village tracts located in this section are along the Bogalay, Kadonkani and Thabetkyi river. The south and southeast portions of township are sparsely populated especially where there are swampy dense forests.
The depletion of mangrove forests is accompanied by biodiversity extinction and loss of habitats, changes of ecological system, enhancement of climatic extremes, increased frequency of drought, heavy rain and storm, invasion of tidal waves into inland area, severe soil erosion, decline of air and water quality, increasing hazard to aquatic animals and the change of coastline due to bank collapse. The coastal dwellers witnessed loss of more than hundred thousands of life having no mangrove barrier to withstand the sea charge accompanied by the powerful Cyclone Nargis.
The main causes of the destruction of the mangrove forests in Bogalay Township are the encroachment of human settlements within the forest area, overcutting for firewood and charcoal production, the extension of paddy land area and clearing of plots of by production of sun- drying salt. The depletion of mangroves
143
also sets in chain reaction of habitat deterioration and contraction for aquatic animals, decreasing amount and variety of forest products and lowering of job opportunity which leads to migration. With no protective cover of mangroves, the existing streams seriously erode their banks. The increasing volume of sediments in stream water, combined with salty water invasion, degrades the quality of freshwater formerly available adequately for the local inhabitants.
As mentioned earlier, there are 9 reserved forests in the Ayeyarwady deltaic region, of which Meinmahla Wildlife Scantuary is well conserved, having no adverse effect of anthropogenic impact being located separate from human settlements. The death toll was relatively smaller when the storm Nargis lashed the area due to the presence of thick mangroves and to sparse the population.
Among the 3 reserved forests of Bogalay Township, Meinmahla Wildlife Scantuary is located between the Bogalay River and Kadonkani River and that is why it has witnessed less human intervention. The other two reserves are located continuous to the settlement area. Pyindaye Reserve is situated in the eastern part of the Bogalay River and it shares boundary with Pyapon Township. Kadonkani Reserve is located in the western part of the Kadonkani River and is adjacent with Laputta Township.
According to satellite image (2010), there is no colour tone that reveals mangrove forests. Instead, the entire area is occupied by paddy and sea sesame.
As the replanted trees are young with small canopy, they do not appear in the satellite image.The remaining forests in Kadonkani Reserve and Pyindaye Reserve; the replanted community forests should be strictly protected in cooperation between the responsible officials, FD, NGOs, other agencies together with the local inhabitants.
According to satellite images the study area had 76,970 ha (190,191 acres) of dense mangroves in 1989 and it decreased to 39.996 ha (98,829 acres) in 2000 and then to 19,615 ha (48,468 acres) in 2010. If concerted efforts are not taken to conserve the remaining forests, it is very much likely to disappear in the next 20 years.
Usually the dense mangroves turns into sparse mangroves in response to overcutting and the area becomes contracted by the change of land use types, particularly into agricultural land.
144
The satellite images also show that there were 8, 7594 ha (216,443 acres) of agriculture land in 1989, and it increased to 130,533ha (322,545 acres) in 1990 and to 143,081 ha (353,552 acres) in 2010. The increase in the agricultural land area in the 20 year period was 55,487ha (137,108 acres), largely at the expense of mangrove area. The rate of mangrove depletion was highest during the period from 1989 to 2000, loosing over 80,939 ha (200,000 acres) of mangrove land, basically due to land use change initiated by the adoption of market- oriented economic system.
Bogaly-Tharpaung Bridge is being built now and on completion it will heighten the accessibility of the area concerned. High accessibility enhances the flow of people and commodity which may improve the economic and social well being of the inhabitants. However, the increased movement of people can degrade the ecosystem and environmental quality, unless among the local inhabitants are indispensable so as to be able to effectively undertaken the protective, conservative and rehabilitative measures.
After the Cyclone Nargis, such bioshielding mangrove species as Avicennia marina (Thamaephyu), Sonneratia apetala (Kanbala) and Bruguiera sexangula (Byushwewa) were chosen in reforestation work, as these species grow faster than any other mangrove species. This can lead to the extinction of other local mangrove species. However, in the long run, other species may develop and all the native flora and faunal may come into existence again.
Any sector of socio-economy of the county need to be developed, but in balance to maintain, so as not to affect other sectors. All the development projects should be transparent, monitoring and accountable.
Meinmahla Wildlife Scantuary, with its rich biodiversity and crocodile nursery cage, may become an attractive site for ecotourists in the near future. In maintaining the mangrove ecology, the government should practice bottom-up form, instead of top-down form.
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