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THE SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN MAUBIN DISTRICT, AYEYARWADY REGION , THE REPUBLIN OF THE UNION OF MYANMAR

Abstract

 

         This study attempts to provide the spatial analysis of settlement patterns in Maubin District, Ayeyarwady Region, the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. This district has an area of 4277.339 square kilometres and more than one million people. Although the majority of the expanding population continues to live in rural areas, urbanization processes have progressively developed in the district. According to the results derived from Distance Analysis, most of the villages are within the reach of Basic Education Primary Schools in 2000 meters and health-care centers of 3000 metres. Road networks of the entire district have good connectivity according to the Network Analysis. In addition, Topographic Maps (1954) and (2010) are used in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to investigate the expansion of settlement. This analysis revealed the changing patterns of all land use categories in Maubin District. Both cluster and random patterns of human population and land utilization are discovered by the application of Cluster and Outlier Analysis with Local Moran’s I. Moreover, Autocorrelation is used to investigate the estimated origin of village by using the village centroids as dependent variables and water bodies, rivers and streams and road as independent variables for the analysis. The target of the value at (0.00) level to explain the variability in the village settlement distribution was applied. From the above result estimated origin of village shows a close relationship with water bodies, rivers and streams. Besides, A Multiple-Nuclei Model is applied to explore spatial distribution pattern of urban settlement in the study area. Also, by applying the Principal Component Analysis (Factor Analysis), uneven distributional pattern of socio-economic development conditions are drawn out in the study area. Since the agriculture is the major economic activity, most of the village tracts are of slightly similar patterns in relation to the socio-economic conditions within Maubin District.

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

            Since the beginning of human history, man has lived in groups, big or small, settling all over the surface of the earth. Man began to settle at a place, where suitable residential ground, drinking water sources and arable land are found. These grew into a considerable size in number. So, man chooses good geographical bases for his settlement. These geographical bases are in a state of constant change, both in time and place. These are diverse and various even in a given region. Settlements of different regions with diverse characteristics create various types and patterns.

            Rural settlement is generally described by several factors. It is generally described either dispersed or clustered but to what extent is it dispersed or clustered is the phenomena that make up the pattern. Permanent settlement started when people discovered agriculture and ceased to be food gatherers and hunters. The food that was produced in excess of their needs was supplied to other people who, having been released from the necessity of producing their own food became town dwellers.  

             The Ayeyarwady Deltaic Region is often referred to as the rice bowl of Myanmar as it is the most important area of commercial rice production since Colonial days. Apart from   paddy, a variety of crops are also grown in the region. Accordingly, the socio-economic conditions and settlement areas of the region have improved. Although the majority of the expanding population continued to live in rural areas, urbanization processes are progressively developed in the district.

 

Study Area

Maubin District is located in Ayeyarwady Region, Myanmar.It has an area of 4277.339 square kilometers (1651.49 square mile). The study area is located latitudinally between 16° 31' and 17° 25' north and longitudinally between 95°15' and 95° 55' east. The study area is composed of four townships. It is bordered by Zalun Township in the north, Taikkyi Township in the northeast, Htantabin Township in the east, Kyaiklat Township in the south, Twantay in the southeast, Kyaunggon Township in the west and Kyonepyaw Township in the North West (Figure 1.1 and Figure1.2).

 

Figure 1.1 Location of AyeyarwadyRegion in Myanmar

              Source:  State and Region Boundaries are based on Topographic Maps (1:63360) 

 

Figure 1.2 Location of Maubin District in AyeyarwadyRegion

Source: Region and Township Boundaries are based on Topographic Map (1:63360)

 

Research Problem

            Spatial and temporal changes in settlement patterns occur in Maubin district during the period from 1954 to 2010. Those changes are different in spatial and temporal scales. According to this situation, there are settlement distribution and expansion, socio-economic condition, transportation facilities, impact of natural disasters are unevenly distributed in the study area. To find out the solution of these problems, settlement patterns and its development related with the physical and human factors should be studied.

Hypotheses

The null hypotheses of the research are:

1. There is no spatial difference between the settlement patterns in Maubin District.

2. There is no relation between estimated origin of villages and river, stream, water bodies and roads.

3. There is no significant relationship between relationship between settlement patterns and socio-economic patterns.

The alternative hypotheses are:

  1. Spatial clustering of the values (population and land use) is associated with the geographic features in the study area.
  2. Estimated origin of villages is related to rivers, streams and water bodies.
  3. There is relationship between settlement patterns and socio-economic patterns.

   Aim and objectives

This analysis should be conducted with an aim and four objectives:

  1. To analyze the spatial and temporal changes of settlement patterns in Maubin District.
  2. To study spatial distribution of population pattern and land use pattern,
  3. To assess how villages have originated.
  4. To learn about town patterns
  5.  To examine the social and economic activities that are related to thosesettlement patterns.

 

Previous investigations and Literature Review

            There are various studies concerned with settlement patterns in Myanmar and Neighbouring countries. Land Utilization of Maubin District in Ayeyarwady Division was examined by Tin Nwe (1973), unpublished M.A (thesis) in Myanmar, Department of Geography, and University of Yangon. This thesis studied the general land utilization of Maubin District. This thesis contributes to obtain historical background, education data, land use and agriculture and old town maps.

24 years later, Freshwater Fishing Industry in Maubin District in Ayeyarwady Division was analyzed by Sandar Tun (1997), unpublished M.A (thesis) in Myanmar, Department of Geography, University of Yangon. A detailed account of freshwater fishing industry in Maubin District was given in this thesis. Also, fishery, historical background of fishery, method of fishing; fish production and fish trade were treated in this thesis.

             Aung Kyaw et al (2004) presented the Spatial Variation of  Socio- economic Activities and Settlement Relocation in Pandaw Model Village; Kyauktan Township. They based their analysis of variations on economic conditions between clustered and dispersed settlement areas, and the functional relationship of Pandaw Model village and its adjacent villages, and towns are analyzed. They studied only at a village level.

             According to Fahui Wang et al (2006), they Studied GIS – based on spatial interpolation and clustering methods are used to map the spatial patterns and identify the concentration of Tai place names.    

            Mya Thaung et al. (2000) presented Spatial Structure of a Settlement Unit: A Case of Socio-economic Functions in Ywatharyar Village, Minbu Township. In this presentation the researchers dealt with the spatial structure of Ywathayar Village in the Ywatharyar Village Tract. Relationship between socio-economic functions and spatial structure of Ywatharyar Village is also examined.

            There are many articles concerning with the analysis of settlement patterns. In Thailand, Sukawattanavijit, C (2006) mentioned that land use in Nakhon Pak Kret Municipality from 1996-2006 exhibited the ribbon pattern that develop along the two major roads. Topographic Maps and Satellite Imageries are used necessarily to study the relationships of land use, infrastructure network system, and population distribution and settlement patterns.

          Pariwate Varnakovida, Arwa Mohamed and Suwiwat Witchakool (2000), approaches to measure spread of settlement locations by using radial buffers around the village centroid. Multiple Spatial logistic Regressions were used to explore the pattern of village settlement. Road density, Euclidean distance from streams and water bodies, distance between points for existing settlement pattern, elevation are also used to analyze the origin of village.

           D.A. Rondinelli (1980), Spatial Analysis for Regional Development, Spatial System and Settlement Patterns (Bicol River Basin of Philippines), used to analyze the regional spatial linkages: including physical, economic, population movement, technological, social service delivery, political and institutional interaction patterns among settlements within the region, and linkages with external centers.

            Aung Khin Myint (2010) analyzed spatial distribution pattern of rural settlement by using the Gain’s concentration index and Morisita’s Index of dispersion method to investigate the cluster and disperse rural settlement and population distribution in Pakokku and Yesagyo townships, Magwe Region in his dissertation.

Khine Myint Cho (2007), employed factor analysis in socio-economic variables at village tract level in Maubin Township in her dissertation. She emphasized 50 variables from one township (76 village tracts) in the Maubin District were classified to measure for socio- economic variations of rural areas.

            The Factor Analysis (Multivariate Technique) is conducted to get a clear image of regional diversity and differences in Peninsular Malaysia by Murayama Yugi (2003). He attempted to investigate the regional differences in socio-economic characteristics (46 variables and 838 mukims) in Peninsular Malaysia and the state of spatial segregation. In his research, a quantitative search for spatial patterns of the factorial ecology of Peninsular Malaysia was made.

            Tarek Rashed and Carsten Jurgens (2010) presented a fusion of remote sensing images and socio-economic data to apply quantitative analysis with particular variable (e.g. population density) as a variable for six cities. Spatial autocorrelation for these six cities reveal that a zone is surrounded by zones exhibiting very similar or very dissimilar values, or it is surrounded by heterogeneous, patchy patterns of similar and dissimilar values.

Sources of Data and Methodology

            Field survey and secondary data are derived from official statistics, orthophoto, satellite images and one inch maps (No. 85-O 8, 7, 8, 11, 12, 16 and 85-P 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14), UTM1: 50000 scale maps (1695-1, 1695-5, 1695-6, 1695-9, 1695-10, 1695-13, 1695-14 and 1795-4, 1795-7, 1795-8, 1795-11, 1795-12, 1795-16), mapping data linkage and analysis were done by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing technique (RS), with the help of topographic maps, orthophoto,  satellite images (30 meter resolution) and Google satellite images. Database as areas of village tracts and villages are shown as polygon, location of village centres as centroid, road network as line, rivers, streams and water bodies as lines and polygons, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), settlement patterns and socio-economic attributes are used for this analysis. Spatial statistical techniques as function of Cluster and Outlier Analysis (Anselin Local Moran’s I) applied in GIS soft ware of Arc GIS (9.3.1) creates as derived output name of the I index, Z score, P value and cluster type (CO Type). Cluster and Outlier Analysis ( Anselin Local Moran’s I) gives a set of weighted features, identifies where high or low values cluster spatially, and features with values that are very different from surrounding feature values. The Cluster and Outlier Analysis tool identifies clusters of features with values similar in magnitude. The tool also identifies spatial outliers. To do this, the tool calculates a Local Moran's I value, a Z score, a P-value, and a code representing the cluster type for each feature.

 The Z score and P-value represent the statistical significance of the computed index value. A positive value for I indicates that the feature is surrounded by features with similar values. Such a feature is part of a cluster. A negative value for I indicates that the feature is surrounded by features with dissimilar values. Such a feature is an outlier.

The Local Moran's I index can only be interpreted within the context of the computed Z score or P- value. The CO Type field distinguishes between a statistically significant (0.05 level) cluster of high values (HH), cluster of low values (LL), outlier in which a high value is surrounded primarily by low values (HL), and outlier in which a low value is surrounded primarily by high values (LH). Applications of Cluster and Outlier Analysis (Anselin Local Moran’s I) can be found in economics, resource management, biogeography, political geography, and demographics.  Autocorrelations are calculated for lags of 1, 2…up to a specified number. This procedure plots autocorrelation function and partial autocorrelation function of one or more time series. Autocorrelation correlates the values of a series with the values lagged by 1 or more cases. It uses the natural (base-e) logarithms of series values instead of the values themselves. This transformation requires that all values be positive.

Principal Component Analysis (Factor Analysis) is employed to evaluate the study area. Factor Analysis was applied to measure secondary data of Maubin District. Factor Analysis is one of the more widely used methods of data reduction in social science research. Socio-economic developments of village tracts in Maubin Township varied from one village to another. The variations are mainly related to settlement patterns, physical features, social conditions and economic factors of village tracts.

Research Design

 

Definitions

 

Spatial Analysis - An approach to geography which places emphasis on the investigation of the spatial distribution of phenomena and the factors influencing observed distribution patterns.

Settlement - any location chosen by people as a permanent or semi permanent      dwelling place.

Linear Settlement Pattern - a settlement which follows the line of, for example, a road or river.

Ribbon Development - when housing grows out from a town along a main road.

Cluster Settlement Pattern - a settlement where buildings are clustered around a particular point.

Dispersed Settlement Pattern - where buildings in a settlement are not clustered around a particular point but are scattered in a random fashion (Small, J and Witherick, M (1989).

 

Acronyms

UTM = Universal Travers Mercator

GIS   = Geographic Information Systems

RS = Remote Sensing

HH   = Cluster of High Value

LL    = Cluster of Low Value

HL   = High Value is surrounded primarily by Low Value

LH   = Low Value is surrounded primarily by High Value

MCWA = Maternal and Child Welfare Association

DEM = Digital Elevation Model

UNDP = United Nation Development Programme

 

 

 

 

 

                                                        

 CHAPTER I

 

GEOGRAPHICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA

 

            Spatial distribution of settlement patterns for an area is controlled by its natural environment, social and economic factors and transportation factors.

 

  1. Physical Environment

            Physical environment of a settlement area is one of the vital factors when land use system is considered and necessarily affects its socio-economic conditions. Maubin District is in Ayeyarwady Region and it occupies 12.6 percent of the total area. The district has an area of 4277.339 square kilometers (1651.49 square mile). The study area is located latitudinally between 16° 31' and 17° 25' north and longitudinally between 95°15' and 95° 55' east. It is bordered by Zalun Township in the north, Taikkyi Township in the northeast, Htantabin Township in the east, Kyaiklat Township in the south, Twantay in the southeast, Kyaunggon Township in the west and Kyonpyaw Township in the northwest. Generally, it has a saucer like topography the middle portion is lower and slightly rising towards the west and the north. It is situated about 37 kilometres far from the Gulf of Mottama.       

            The study area is located on the alluvial soil deposited from Phanlaing River, Bawle River, Toe River, Shwelaung River, Pantanaw River, and many creeks and receives Tropical Monsoon type of Climate (Am) with total annual rainfall of more than 2438.4 millimeters (96 inches) and mean temperature of 26.67°C (80° F). It has a favourable condition for agricultural land with a total area of 66.4 percent and 25.2 percent of fishing industries are occupied by river, swamps, ponds and lakes. These physical conditions created good environmental situations for settlement patterns and socio-economic natures of the inhabitants.

Maubin Township is made up of 12 wards and 76 village tracts. Pantanaw Township includes 4 wards and 52 village tracts, Nyaungdon Township consists of 10 wards and 44 village Tracts and there are 18 wards and 63 village Tracts in Danubyu Township in Figure 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7. There are 1648 villages in Maubin District.

 

Figure 1.3 Location of Village Tracts in Maubin District

Source:  Townships  and  Village Tracts Boundaries are based on Topographic Map (1:50000)
              (1695-1, 1695-5, 1695-6, 1695-9, 1695-10, 1695-13, 1695-14 and 1795-4,  
              1795-7, 1795-8, 1795-11, 1795-12, 1795-16), 

Figure 1.4 Location of Village Tracts in Maubin Township

Source:  Townships  and  Village Tracts Boundaries are based on Topographic Map (1:50000)
               (1695-1, 1695-5, 1695-6, 1695-9, 1695-10, 1695-13, 1695-14 and 1795-4,  
               1795-7, 1795-8, 1795-11, 1795-12, 1795-16), 

Figure 1.5 Location of Village Tracts in Pantanaw Township

                Source:  Townships  and  Village Tracts Boundaries are based on Topographic Map (1:50000)
                        (1695-1, 1695-5, 1695-6, 1695-9, 1695-10, 1695-13, 1695-14 and 1795-4,  
                         1795-7, 1795-8, 1795-11, 1795-12, 1795-16),

Figure 1.6 Location of Village Tracts in Nyaungdon Township

                Source:  Townships  and  Village Tracts Boundaries are based on Topographic Map (1:50000)
                (1695-1, 1695-5, 1695-6, 1695-9, 1695-10, 1695-13, 1695-14 and 1795-4,  
                 1795-7, 1795-8, 1795-11, 1795-12, 1795-16), 

Figure 1.7 Location of Village Tracts in Danubyu Township

                Source:  Townships  and  Village Tracts Boundaries are based on Topographic Map (1:50000)
               (1695-1, 1695-5, 1695-6, 1695-9, 1695-10, 1695-13, 1695-14 and 1795-4,  
                1795-7, 1795-8, 1795-11, 1795-12, 1795-16), 

Human, Social and Cultural Bases

Human and social conditions of the inhabitants are very important for the spatial distribution of the settlement patterns in Maubin District. Settlement composition is based largely on kinship although personal factor play an important role.

           Maubin District occupies the central portion of the Ayeyarwady delta. It has a vast stretch of flat, fertile and productive land. Numerous rivers and streams provide as the fishing and communication channels. These favourable physical environments attracted permanent settlements.

In Maubin Township, settlement is concentrated in villages situated along the bank of the Ayeyarwady and Toe rivers where transportation is easy. Moreover, these village settlements were formed depending on the availability of agricultural land and the possibility of fishing for livelihood.

Most of the settlements are concentrated in northwestern, southwestern and southeastern part of the Maubin Township. The northeastern part of the Maubin Township, where Nyaungdon deepwater field occurs is sparsely inhabited owing to the small area of land suitable for cultivation and settlement.

            In Pantanaw Township, uneven distribution of population concentration is found. Low population concentration occurred in the deep water field area of Deedote-Mokok and Mingru-Bohdi while higher concentration of population is found in Pantanaw Myoma (centre of the town) and along the bank of Ayeyarwady River. Low population concentration is found in the eastern, northeastern and southeastern parts of Nyaungdon Township. These areas are mostly occupied by swamps and ins (ponds). The western part of the township is slightly elevated and the Ayeyarwady River flows. Thus, the higher concentration of population is found. The population distribution of Danubyu Township is fairly even. Mostly, the township is suitable equally for agriculture and human settlement.

 

Table 1.1 Decadal Population of Maubin District

Year

Population

Year

Population

1901

278309

1961

541258

1911

305078

1973

628586

1921

330106

1983

761741

1931

371509

1993

902241

1941

428092

2009

1199293

1951

484678

 

 

Source: Manpower and Immigration Department ( Maubin District)

 Figure 1.8 Trend of decadal population growth in Maubin District

            Source: Based onTable1.1
 

Population of the Ayeyarwady Region is constantly increasing, but difference from district to district. Likewise, the population of the study area is also changing, with increasing trend, but the amount and rate of growth is fluctuating from year to year. In the study area, trend line of human population from 1901 to 2009 shows a slight increase. Regression equation and two standard errors are mentioned in Table 1.1 and Figure1.8. Maubin Township has the highest population and Nyaungdon Township is the lowest population. According to the 2009 statistics, Maubin district has an area of 4277.339 square kilometers (1651.49 square miles) and 1199293 people with a population density of 280 people per square kilometre. Within the four townships, Maubin Township has an area of 1334.83 square kilometers (515.38 square mile) and a total population of 397193 with a population density of 298 people per square kilometre. Being the administrative centre and having at large proportion of cultivable land, Maubin Township has the largest number of population. The Danubyu Township was lowest population and population density is highest due to the smallest area. Danubyu Township is markedly elevated than the other townships. Most of the villages are established on these elevated areas. Pantanaw ranked second in the number of population, but fourth in population density.  Its population was 294763 and 228 persons per square kilometre. The relatively low density was probably related to the presence of ins (lakes) and deep water fields shown in Table1.2.          

Table 1.2 Population Density of Maubin District (2009)

Township                                    

Area(square

Kilometre)    

Total population                

Density( Per Square Kilometre)

Maubin                        

1334.83                  

397193 

278

Pantanaw

1291.26                     

294763

228

Nyaungdon

  901.94              

257461

285

Danubyu

  749.41            

249876

333

Total

4277.44          

1199293

280

 

S

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Manpower and Immigration Department ( Maubin Disrict)

 

 Maubin District is composed of four townships and it has 44 wards, 235 village tracts and 1648 villages Moreover, it has 107398 houses in urban and 161098 houses in rural. Since its economy is heavily based on agriculture and fishery, the number of rural population is much greater than the town population. Some of the town settlers were involved in government services. The number of urban and rural population, houses, and households of Maubin District are presented in Table1.3.

Table 1.3 Urban and rural population, number of houses and households                          
                    (2009)          

 

Township

Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

 

Houses

Households

Houses

Households

Population

Population

Maubin

6277

9415

35569

53354

81877

315316

Pantanaw

4658

6987

26397

39595

28944

265819

Nyaungdon

4069

6103

23056

34584

50055

207406

 

Danubyu

3949

5923

22376

33565

45964

203912

Total

18953

28428

107398

161098

206840

992453

                           

Source: Manpower and Immigration Department ( Maubin Disrict)

Most of the nationalities are Bamar. They had settled down in the area long before the British annexed the lower Myanmar. They inhabited in areas where the most productive farmland were available and along the river banks for easy communication. Kayin ranks second in number in Maubin District. There are two different stocks of Kayins, namely Sakaw and Pwo-Kayin communities are mostly found along the river banks and in the areas under plantation, earning their living on agriculture and fishery. Small numbers of other nationalities are Kachin, Kayar, Chin, Mon and Rakhine are found in this area. A large number of Indians settle down as farm labours. At present, Most of the Indians and Chinese are engaged in trading and marketing rather than in agriculture. Since the majority of populations are Bamar, they profess in Buddhism. Christianity is the second most dominant religion, mostly devoted by the Kayin. Beside, a small number of Islam, Hinduism and others are found in Maubin District.      

Development of social condition depends upon the economy and transportation and communication facilities. Within the district, there is only one hospital, with two hundred beds located in Maubin Township, one hospital with 50 beds and another hospital with 25 beds in Nyaungdon Township, Pantanaw Township has three hospitals with 16 beds each as well as three hospitals with 16 beds in Danubyu Township. There are one hospital and one school health care centre only in Maubin Township, 30 rural health-care centres, 147 branch rural health-care centres, 6 maternal and child health-care centres and 5 traditional medicine clinics. The Ministry of Health urged Health Department to implement tasks for improvement of rural health. Health-care services have improved to provide rural people with sufficient health care. Health employees are also appointed to give medical advice and treatment as well as traditional medicine treatment. There are 69 medical doctors and doctor people ratio is 1:141.

1.3 Institutional Bases

 Institutional bases of the education sector, the government is implementing education programs to promote Myanmar Education Standard. Education is an important indicator because knowledge and attitude depend on the education level of people. Education of the Maubin District is related to the distribution of universities and schools. Maupin University, Computer University. Government Technical University is situated in only Maubin Township. There are 864 Basic Education Primary Schools, 44 Basic Education Middle Schools and15 Basic Education High Schools. Moreover, there are 3329 University students, 13333 Basic Education High School Students, 29750 Basic Education Middle School students and 86811 Basic Education Primary School students. Beside, primary teacher student ratio is 1:23, teacher student ratio is1:30 in middle school and1:35 of teacher student ratio in high schools. Using spatial analysis tool, results of Euclidian Distance reveals distance between villages and education facilities and health-care centers in Table1.4 and Figure1.9, 1.10, 1.11 and 1.12. Settlement of the villages in Maubin District is found clustered distribution. Basic Education Primary Schools, Hospitals and Health-care Centers are also clustered distribution. Hence, the distribution of Basic Education Primary Schools and Hospitals and Health-care Centers are in support for welfare of the study area.  Most of the villages are within the reach of Basic Education Primary Schools in 2000 metres (2187.22 feet) and health care centers of 3000 metres (3280.83yards).

Moreover, Institutional matters are taken care of by Maternal and Child Welfare Association (MCWA), Women's Affairs Association, Fire Bridge Brigade, Red Cross Society and Association of Union Solidarity and Development.

 

  1. Economic Basic Factors

 

           Economic factors are mainly responsible for changes in settlement composition and location, though at some seasons, social pressures have a strong influence. Historically and spatially, the settlement of the Maubin District is located on the alluvial plain along the rivers and streams with good climatic conditions that are favourable for cultivation and fishing.

            Economic factors are mainly responsible for changes in settlement composition and location, though at some seasons, social pressures have a strong influence. Historically and spatially, the settlement of the Maubin District is located on the alluvial plain along the rivers and streams with good climatic conditions that are favourable for cultivation and fishing. The general land use pattern of the district is shown in Table 1.5, 1.6 and Figure 1.13. More than 70 percent of the area is occupied by agriculture. Approximately, 17.53 percent of the lands are made up of rivers, swamps, lakes and ponds. Only urban land of 1160.64 hectares or 2867.99 acres (0.27 percent) and 7873.98 hectares or19456.95 acres (1.84 percent) of rural land prevailed in 2009. Main agricultural crops are paddy and pulses. Others are corn, groundnut, sasemum, sunflower and kaing crops. In 2008-09, monsoon paddy of 16096.4 hectares (39774.91 acres) and 82382.4 hectares (203570.5 acres) of summer paddy were cultivated in the district. The largest cultivated paddy hectares in Maubin District have 58437.51 hectares (144401.7 acres) of monsoon paddy and 38335.12 hectares (94727.77 acres) of summer paddy is found in Maubin Township. Danubyu Township cultivated the lowest monsoon paddy 10656.2 hectares (26331.94 acres) due to the least utilization of agricultural land 57100.02 hectares (141096.7 acres)  is found.

 

Table 1.4 Statistical Summary of Spatial Distribution of Some Social Facilities

                  in Maubin District (2010)

 

Item

Distance ratio

Significant level

Z score

(Standard Deviation)

Critical value

Distribution

BEHS

1.01

0.05

0.12

1

Random

BEMS

1.01

0.05

0.12

1

Random

BEPS

0.83

0.01

-9.58

-2.58

Cluster

Hospital& Health care centre

0.59

0.01

-5.44

-2.58

Cluster

villages

0.9

0.01

-3.25

-2.58

Cluster

Source: Calculated with Average Nearest Neighbour based on spatial database of appendix 1

 

 

     Figure 1.9 Nearness to the Basic Education Primary School in Maubin               

                            District

      Source: Analyzed with Euclidian Distance based on spatial database of Appendix I

 

Figure 1.10 Nearness to the Basic Education Middle School in Maubin    
                     District

               Source: Analyzed with Euclidian Distance based on spatial database of Appendix 1

 

Figure 1.11 Nearness to the Basic Education High School in Maubin District

   Source: Analyzed with Euclidian Distance based on spatial database of Appendix 1

 

Figure 1.12 Nearness to Hospitals and Rural Health- Care Centre in Maubin 
                    District

 Source:   Source: Analyzed with Euclidian Distance based on spatial database of Appendix 1

 

 

            Freshwater fish production is the second most important economic activities of Maubin District. In the rainy season, the whole of Maubin District, except the embankments, human settlement are inundated. Total areas of fish ponds 38186.2 hectares (94359.78 acres) and 1377.96 hectares (3405 acres) of prawn pond are found in Maubin District. Dug ponds of fish and prawn are highest in Maubin Township and lowest in Danubyu Township due to presence of lowest deep water fields. The most extensive deep water fields are located in Maubin District. These are Deedote - Mokoke deep water fields, Mingru - Bodi deep water field, Yekyaw deep water field, Natse deep water field, Nyaungdon deep water field and Thonegwa deep water field in Figure1.14. Most of the deep water fields are utilized by fish culture and leasable fishery (in fishery). Rural service centers would contain services and facilities to assemble agricultural commodities for marketing provide local periodic marketing functions; extend transport access to market town larger urbanized centers of accommodate small scale agro processing and handicrafts, distribute credit, market information and other technical inputs; facilitate savings mobilization; and provide basic health, recreation, education and administrative services (D.A Rrondinelli 1980). These recommendations are guidelines for some analysis of settlement patterns in Maubin District. 

From the various functional and spatial analyses, the settlement unit of the Maubin District was able to identify as a set of appropriate services, facilities and institutions needed at each of two levels of settlement- rural service centers and market towns centers to meet basic human needs, expressing the settlement system and stimulate resource development in Table 1.7 Services, facilities and infrastructure proposed for settlement units in Maubin District.

To analyze the regional spatial linkages D. A. Rondinelli (1980), Spatial Analysis for Regional Development, Spatial System and Settlement Patterns (Bicol River Basin of Philippines) uses physical, economic, population movement, technological, social service delivery, political and institutional interaction patterns among settlements within the region, and linkages with external centers.

Table 1.5 Land use of Maubin District during the period from 1912-13 to 2008-2009

Land use

 

1912-13

 

 

1954-55

 

 

2008-09

 

 

hectare

acres

percent

hectare

acres

percent

hectare

acres

percent

Net sown area

199659

492985

46.7

193709

478293

45.2521

309218

763501

69.8

Virgin land

130275

321667

30.5

94872.5

234253

22.16307

14136

34903

3.19

Culturable Waste land

86050

212469

20.1

66937.2

165277

15.63713

114319

282270

25.8

Fellow land

11172

27586

2.62

72547.2

179129

16.94769

5045.1

12457

1.14

Total district area

427156

1054707

100

428066

1056952

100

442718

1093131

100

Source: Land Records Department of Maubin District

  Table 1.6 Land use of Maubin District (2009)

Sr. No

Land use

Percentage

Sr. No

Land use

Percentage

1

Agricultural land

69.99

7

Rural Land

1.84

2

River and Swamp

14.38

8

Road Land

0.70

3

Grazing Land

3.98

9

Religious Land

0.43

4

Virgin land

3.30

10

Urban Land

0.27

5

Lake and Ponds

3.15

11

Factory Land

0.05

6

Dam, Weir, Embankment

1.88

12

Rural Land

0.02

        Source: Land Records Department of Maubin District

 

Figure 1.14 Areas of Deep Water Fields in Maubin District

 Source: Land Records Department of Maubin District

 

Table 1.7 Village and Town Facilities in Maubin District

General Function

Rural  Service Centre

                        Town

Transport and Communication

Absence of all weathered roads Motorcycle or Bicycle or trailer  service to rural collection point, telephone service 

Asphalt all weather roads, Bus terminal, trailer  terminal, trucking or bulk distributing, regular bus or jeep services to regional urban centre, Regional urban centre, jetty, free port, auto- spare part, retail store, telephone, telegraph- radiograph service, Postal service, Email, Fax mail

Marketing, Trade and Shopping

Periodic market facilities, small grocery shops, storage facilities, milling facilities,

Daily market facilities, retail outlet for farm supply, wholesale outlet for farm implements, households- goods retail shops

Manufacturing

Cottage industries, agricultural processing works, bicycle, motorcycle repair  shops,

Small scale craft shops, small scale consumer shop, rural goods production, distribution facilities

Finance

Private money lenders  and pawn shops

Commercial and saving bank facilities, rural bank with agricultural loan, private money lender and pawn shops

Public Utilities

Well and pump water supply point, river and stream water facilities

Pump water and well water , supply residential and commercial area with residential and commercial area with poor drainage system

Administration

Village General Administrative Office

Township General Administrative Office, municipal           service office, police station, judicial facilities

Recreation and social activities

Earthen play ground, multipurpose community centre, e.g. Monastery

Small gymnasium, restaurants and coffee shop, cinema hall, play ground and small park

Education

Basic education Primary school (most of the villages)

Basic education Primary school, Basic education Middle school, Basic education High school, Universities (Maubin Township)

Health

Rural Health- care Centre, Maternal and Child- care Service, Indigenous Medical- care Service

General Hospital, physicians, Dentists, Retail Pharmaceutical Outlets

 

Source: According to guideline of DA Rodinelli (1980) and Field survey

 

1.5 Infrastructure Bases

1.5.1Transportation System                 

          Transportation system is one of the infrastructures for development of settlement pattern in the Maubin District. Many geographical studies mentioned that transportation development could generate economic development which also forces policy makers to construct new transportation infrastructure (Yeates, 1968). Before 1988, there were no bridges across Ayeyarwady River and Toe River. The study area is located on low flat terrain. It has numerous streams and creeks; lacking of road transport. Thus, the main transportation was waterway. In present decade, government has invested a considerable amount of money in road and bridge construction. Thus, at present the study area is travelable through land routes in addition to existing navigable rivers and streams.

            There are two modes of transportation system in the district. They are waterway and land routes. Inland Water Transport can utilize small motorized boats, attached with engines and small ordinary boats. Vessels of Inland Waterway used for travelling and shipment of commodities to destination. Previously, the waterway was the only means of transportation. But it took more time to reach the destination. Now, settlers mostly use the waterway for shipment of bulky goods.

            In the study area, the most important land routes are Yangon-Pathein Road and Yangon-Bogalay Road.Yangon-Pathein Road passes through Nyaungdon-Pantanaw. Yangon- Bogalay Road passes through Maubin. These roads served as the main transportation route between Ayeyarwady Region and Yangon Region. Other   accessible roads are Maubin-Samalauk Road (49.9 kilometres) or (31 miles),  Maubin-Kyaiklat Road (31.06 kilometres) or (19.29 miles),  Maubin-Twentay Road (21.08 kilometres) or (13.09 miles), Maubin-Mawlamyinegyun Road (56.12 kilometres) or (34.87 miles),  Maubin-Nyaungdon Road (45.06 kilometres) or (miles), Mezali-Malatto to Road (27.04 kilometres) or (16.80 miles), Maubin-Shwedaungmaw Road (27.04 kilometres) or ( 16.80 miles), Maubin -Yelegalae-Kywedon Road (32.18 kilometres) or ( 19.99 miles), Maubin-Sitchaung-Kyedon Road (32.18 kilometres) or ( 19.99 miles), Pantanaw-Kyontainggyi-Einme Road (24.7 kilometres) or (15.34 miles), Pantanaw-Wakama Road (57.29 kilometres) or (35.59 miles), Hngetpyawgyun-Kyattiya-Tarpat Road (6.43 kilometres) or (3.99 miles), Danubyu-Kyonpyaw-Yekyi-Pathein Road (43.15 kilometres) or (26.81miles),  and Danubyu-Thaunggyi Sharke-A-taung-Hinthada Road (88.52  kilometres) or ( 55 miles).

In order to analyze the connectivity of a transportation network in the study area it is necessary to idealized network into the form of a graph in Figures 1.15 and 1.16. Transportation network can be represented by a series of vertices (nodes) and a set of edges (Linkages). In the study area, a network with a beta index of connectivity is 1.7, alpha index of 47.83% and gamma index of 66.67%. So, the index indicates high degree of interconnection. All townships in Maubin district has a good indication in beta index since the value of the district is more than one, thus road network of all townships have good connectivity.

 Figure 1.15 Transportation Network of Maubin District

        Source: Land Records Department of  Maubin District

Figure 1.16 A Series of Vertices (nodes), A Set of Edges (linkages) and A Sub   
                   Graph

The transportation facilities, especially roads and bridges like Bo Myathtun Bridge, Maubin Bridge and now Nyaungdon Bridge were opened that have been improving very rapidly. Moreover, highest accessibility is found at junction of Danubyu- Pantanaw road. Second highest accessibilities occurred at the junction of Yangon-Pathein road. Junction of Pathwe-Kyaunggon road is the lowest accessibility because the junction is located far from the main road and less developed than other junctions areas.

            Thus, Linear and Ribbon settlement pattern is obviously developed along the transportation route. Some dispersed villages and isolated villages are developed and become linear settlement pattern in recent year than before due to the improving transportation facilities.

1.5.2 Water Supply

 

            Water is important for drinking water and the agricultural use. Domestic use of water are rain water, streams, lakes and underground water, artesian well, dug well, road side dug drain. Availability of water especially rain water and running water is important for the growing of crops. In dry season, crops are grown by the use of water from weir and canal. The drinking water for nearby villages is available from the streams and rivers. Some of the villages distant from the rivers and streams use wells. But the town dwellers depend on the both wells and artesian wells. According to the physical test the appearance of the water sources in the study area is slightly turbid not clean. Some villages are scarce of drinking water in summer.

 

 1.5.3 Electricity

 

In the study area, electricity is provided for only town areas. Apart from domestic use roads and public places also use the electricity. Most of the residences living in the villages use their own generators, gas lamp, oil lamp and candles.